To view the fulltext, please log in
To view the pdf, please log in
- FullText & PDF
- Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
- Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
- Reduced rates with a PPV account
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restriction apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
- Automatic perpetual access to all articles of the subscribed year(s)
- Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
- Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
Article / Publication Details
There is evidence for an association between polymorphisms of monoamine transporter genes and temperamental personality traits. Recent findings have shown that interaction of allelic variants of the different genes may contribute to the personality factors. We studied the association between temperamental personality dimensions measured with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and polymorphisms of the dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (5-HTT) transporter genes in 127 healthy Polish volunteers. There were no significant differences between means of TCI temperamental dimensions (novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence and harm avoidance) and the transporter genes compared by ANOVA. There were some significant associations between genotypes and TCI subdimensions. Individuals carrying the A9/A9 DAT genotype have lower RD4 scores (dependence vs. independence) than A10/A10 individuals (3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 3.5 ± 1.3); p = 0.01. Examining 5-HTT gene promoter polymorphism, heterozygous individuals (l/s) and individuals with 44-bp deletion (s/s) scored significantly lower in the HA1 subdimension (anticipatory worry and pessimism vs. uninhibited optimism; 4.3 ± 2.3 vs. 5.5 ± 2.6) in comparison with individuals without deletion (l/l); p = 0.021. The NET transporter gene polymorphism showed no significant association with any of the temperamental TCI subdimensions.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
- Bouchard T, Lykken D, McGue M, Segal N, Tellegen A: Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science 1990;250:223–228.
- Cloninger CR: A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants: A proposal. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987;44:573–588.
- Cloninger CR, Przybeck TR, Svrakic DM: The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: US normative data. Psychol Rep 1991;69:10147–10157.
- Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, Przybeck TR: A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50:975–990.
- Zakrzewska M, Samochowiec J, Rybakowski F, Pełka-Wysiecka J, Hauser J: Analiza rzetelności skali TCI (validity of the TCI scale, first polish version). Psychiatr Pol, in press.
- Kitayama S, Dohi T: Cellular and molecular aspects of monoamine neurotransmitter transporters. Jpn J Pharmacol 1996;72:195–208.
- Vandenbergh DJ, Perisco AM, Hawkins AL, Griffin CA, Li X, Jabs EW, Uhl GR: Human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) maps to chromosome 5p15.3 and displays a VNTR. Genomics 1992;14:1104–1106.
- Ramamoorthy S, Baumann A, Moore K, Han H, Yang-Feng T, Chang A, Ganapathy V, Blakley R: Antidepressant- and cocaine-sensitive human serotonin transporter: Molecular cloning, expression and chromosomal localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:2542–2546.
- Gelernter J, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK: Linkage mapping of serotonin transporter protein gene SLC6A4 on chromosome 17. Hum Genet 1995;95:677–680.
- Brüss M, Kunz J, Lingen B, Bönisch H: Chromosomal mapping of the human gene for the tricyclic antidepressant-sensitive noradrenaline transporter. Hum Genet 1993;91:278–280.
- Gelernter J, Kruger S, Pakstis AJ, Pacholczyk T, Sparkes RS, Kidd KK, Amara SG: Assignment of the norepinephrine transporter protein (NET1) locus to chromosome 16. Genomics 1993;18:690–692.
- Lesch KP, Bengel D, Heils A, Sabol SZ, Greenberg BD, Petri S, Benjamin J, Müller CR, Hamer DH, Murphy DL: Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science 1996;274:1527–1531.
- Ströber G, Nöthen MM, Pörzgen P, Brüss M, Bönisch H, Knapp M, Beckmann H, Propping P: Systemic search for variation in the human norepinephrine transporter gene: Identification of five naturally occurring missense mutations and study of association with major psychiatric disorders. Am J Med Genet 1996;67:523–532.
- Ebstein R, Novick O, Umansky R, Priel B, Osher Y, Blaine D, Bennett E, Nemanov L, Katz M, Belmaker R: D4DR exon III polymorphism associated with the personality trait of novelty seeking in normal human volunteers. Nat Genet 1996;12:78–80.
- Ono Y, Manki H, Yoshimura K, Muramatsu T, Mizushima H, Higuchi S, Yagi G, Kanba S, Asai M: Association between dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism and novelty seeking in Japanese subjects. Am J Med Genet 1997;74:501–503.
- Ebstein RP, Nemanov L, Klotz I, Gritsenko I, Belmaker RH: Additional evidence for an association between the dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III repeat polymorphism and the human personality trait of novelty seeking. Mol Psychiatry 1997;2:472–477.
- Jönsson EG, Nöthen MM, Gustavsson JP, Neidt H, Forslund K, Mattila Evenden M, Rylander G, Propping P, Asberg M: Lack of association between dopamine D4 receptor gene and personality traits. Psychol Med 1998;28:985–989.
- Sullivan PF, Fifield WJ, Kennedy MA, Mulder RT, Sellman JD, Joyce PR: No association between novelty seeking and the type 4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) in two New Zealand samples. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:98–101.
- Ebstein RP, Gritsenko I, Nemanov L, Frisch A, Osher Y, Belmaker RH: No association between the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region polymorphism and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) temperament of harm avoidance. Mol Psychiatry 1997;2:224–226.
- Ebstein RP, Segman R, Benjamin J, Osher Y, Nemanov L, Belmaker RH: 5-HT2C (HTR2C) serotonin receptor gene polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of reward dependence: Interaction with dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) and dopamine D3 receptor (D3DR) polymorphisms. Am J Med Genet 1997;74:65–72.
- Miller SA, Dykes D, Plesky HF: A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Res 1988;16:1215.
- Sano A, Kondoh K, Kakimoto Y, Kondo I: A 40-nucleotide repeat polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter gene. Hum Genet 1993;91:405–406.
- Sander T, Harms H, Lesch KP, Rommelspacher H, Schmidt LG: Association analysis of a regulatory variation of the serotonin transporter gene with alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1997;8:1356–1359.
- Jönsson EG, Nöthen MM, Gustavsson JP, Neidt H, Bunyel R, Propping P, Sedvall GC: Polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporter genes and their relationships to monoamine metabolite concentrations in CSF of healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Res 1998;79:1–9.
- Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 9.0, SSPS for Windows, RzK GMBH Asbach 1999.
- Sabol SZ, Nelson ML, Fisher C, Gunzerath L, Brody CL, Hu S, Sirota LA, Marcus SE, Greenberg BD, Lucas FR, Benjamin J, Murphy DL, Hamer DH: A genetic association for cigarette smoking behavior. Health Psychol 1999;18:7–13.
- Ricketts MH, Hamer RM, Sage JI, Manowitz P, Feng F, Menza MA: Association of a serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism with harm avoidance behaviour in an elderly population. Psychiatr Genet 1998;8:41–44.
- Garvey MJ, Noyes R Jr, Cook B, Blum N: Preliminary confirmation of the proposed link between reward-dependence traits and norepinephrine. Psychiatry Res 1996;65:61–64.
- Benjamin J, Osher Y, Lichtenberg P, Bachner-Melman R, Gritsenko I, Kotler M, Belmaker RH, Valsky V, Drendel M, Ebstein RP: An interaction between the catechol O-methyltransferase and serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphisms contributes to Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire persistence scores in normal subjects. Neuropsychobiology 2000;41:48–53.
- Noble EP, Ozkaragoz TZ, Ritchie TL, Zhang X, Blin TR, Sparkes RS: D2 and D4 dopamine receptor polymorphisms and personality. Am J Med Genet 1998;81:257–267.
- Kuhn KU, Meyer K, Nothen MM, Gansicke M, Papassotriopoulos A, Maier W: Allelic variants of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and serotonin receptor 5HT2c (HTR2c) and temperament factors: Replication tests. Am J Med Genet 1999;88:168–172.
- Hamer DH, Greenberg BD, Sabol SZ, Murphy DL: Role of the serotonin transporter gene in temperament and character. J Pers Disord 1999;13:312–327.