Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 33, No. 4, 2001
Issue release date: July–August 2001
Section title: Original Paper
Ophthalmic Res 2001;33:221–227
(DOI:10.1159/000055674)

Dryness Symptoms, Diagnostic Protocol and Therapeutic Management: A Report on 1,200 Patients

Versura P. · Cellini M. · Torreggiani A. · Profazio V. · Bernabini B. · Caramazza R.
Centre of Biotechnological and Clinical Research in Ophthalmology, University of Bologna, Italy

Do you have an account?

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
  • Reduced rates with a PPV account
read more

Direct: USD 38.00
Account: USD 26.50

Select

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restriction apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00

Select

Subscribe

  • Automatic perpetual access to all articles of the subscribed year(s)
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Published online: 7/19/2001

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0030-3747 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0259 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ORE

Abstract

Purpose: To report the diagnostic and therapeutic data obtained from 1,200 patients suffering from dry eye symptoms not due to Sjögren’s syndrome or other auto-immune diseases. Methods: Schirmer test I, ferning test, breakup time, vital dye staining, brush and imprint cytology were performed; data were grouped into diagnostic profiles, and the therapy was prescribed according to these. Results: Eight diagnostic profiles were identified. Dry eye was diagnosed in 57.1% of patients; the remaining 42.9% were found to suffer from eye discomfort or conjunctivitis of different aetiologies. Conclusions: Subjective symptoms of dryness can hide diseases other than dry eye; combined clinical and laboratory tests are requested to make a diagnosis. Our experience indicates that a therapy prescribed on the basis of diagnostic profiles provides relief in 79.1% of cases.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Published online: 7/19/2001

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0030-3747 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0259 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ORE


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Tseng SCG, Tsubota K: Important concepts for treating ocular surface and tear disorders. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;124:825–835.
  2. Manthorpe R, Andersen V, Jensen OA, Oxholm P, Prause JU, Schiodt M: Editorial comments on the four sets of criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol 1986;suppl 61:31–35.
  3. Lemp MA: Report of the National Eye Institute/Industry Workshop on Clinical Trials in Dry Eyes. CLAO 1995;21:221–232.
  4. McMonnies CW: Key questions in a dry eye history. J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:512–517.

    External Resources

  5. Bjerrum KB: Test and symptoms in keratoconjunctivitis sicca and their correlation. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1996;74:436–441.
  6. Ravazzoni L, Ghini C, Macri A, Rolando M: Forecasting of hydrophilic contact lens tolerance by means of tear ferning test. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1998;236:354–358.
  7. van Bjisterveld OP: Diagnostic test in the sicca syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1969;82:10–14.
  8. Norn MS: Lissamine green, vital staining of cornea and conjunctiva. Acta Ophthalmol 1973;51:483–491.

    External Resources

  9. Versura P, Profazio V, Cellini M, Torreggiani A, Caramazza R: Eye discomfort and air pollution. Ophthalmologica 1999;213:103–109.
  10. Liotet S: Diagnostic biologique des conjonctivites. Editions Techniques Encycl Méd-Chir. Paris, Masson, 1994, Ophthalmologie, 21-130-B-10, p 17.
  11. Tseng SCG: Staging of conjunctival squamous metaplasia by impression cytology. Ophthalmology 1985;92:728–733.
  12. Orsoni JG, Tomba MC, Bonacini M, Chiari M: A new filter imprint technique in cytology for ocular lesions. Proc Assoc Eye Res, Leuven Sept 1987.
  13. Manthorpe R, Oxholm P, Prause JU, Schiodt M: The Copenhagen criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol 1986;suppl 61:19–21.
  14. Murube J, Paterson A, Murube E: Classification of artificial tears. I. Composition and properties. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;438:693–704.
  15. Murube J, Murube E, Zhuo C: Classification of artificial tears. II. Additives and commercial formulas. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998;438:705–715.
  16. Farris RL: Tear osmolarity: A new gold standard; in Holly FJ (ed): The Preocular Tear Film in Health, Disease and Contact Lens Wear. Lubbock, Dry Eye Institute, 1994, pp 495–503.
  17. Rolando M, Baldi F, Calabria GA: Tear mucus ferning in KCS; in Holly FJ (ed): The Preocular Tear Film in Health, Disease and Contact Lens Wear. Lubbock, Dry Eye Institute, 1986, pp 204–208.
  18. Kogbe O, Liotet S, Tiffany JM: Factors responsible for tear ferning. Cornea 1991;10:433–444.
  19. Toda I, Fujishima H, Tsubota K: Ocular fatigue is the major symptom of dry eye. Acta Ophthalmol 1993;71:347–352.
  20. Warren DW: Hormonal influences on the lachrymal gland in dry eye. Intern Ophthalmol Clin 1994;34:19–25.
  21. Murray SB, Lee WR Williamson J: Ageing changes in the lachrymal gland: A histological study. Clin Exp Gerontol 1981;3:1–27.
  22. Mathers WD, Lane JA, Zimmerman MB: Tear film changes associated with normal aging. Cornea 1996;15:229–234.
  23. Schein OD, Munoz B, Tielsch JM, Bandeen-Roche K, West S: Prevalence of dry eye among the elderly. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;124:723–728.
  24. Greiner JV, Peace DG, Baird RS, Allansmith MR: Effects of eye rubbing on the conjunctiva as a model of ocular inflammation. Am J Ophthalmol 1985;100:45–50.

    External Resources

  25. Brignole F, Pisella PJ, Goldschild M, De Saint Jean M, Goguel A, Baudouin C: Flow cytometric analysis of inflammatory markers in conjunctival epithelial cells of patients with dry eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000;41:1356–1363.
  26. Rivas L, Oroza MA, Perez-Esteban A, Murube-del-Castillo J: Morphological changes in ocular surface in dry eyes and other disorders by impression cytology. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1992;230:329–334.
  27. Nelson JD, Havener VR, Cameron JD: Cellulose acetate impressions of the ocular surface: Dry eye states. Arch Ophthalmol 1983;101:1869–1872.
  28. Nelson JD, Gordon JF: Topical fibronectin in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Am J Ophthalmol 1992;114:441–447.