To view the fulltext, please log in
To view the pdf, please log in
- FullText & PDF
- Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
- Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
- Reduced rates with a PPV account
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restriction apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
- Automatic perpetual access to all articles of the subscribed year(s)
- Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
- Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
Article / Publication Details
Based on their anabolic properties in skeletal muscles, β-adrenergic agonists are of interest as potential countermeasures to microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. The levels of clenbuterol (Cb), a β2-adrenergic agonist, in both plasma and skeletal muscle were higher in hindlimb-suspended rats than in their nonsuspended Cb-treated controls. Cb treatment was shown to help maintain the body weight in suspended rats, while reducing the amount of mesenteric fat. However, hindlimb suspension attenuated Cb’s lipolytic effects. In skeletal muscle, the magnitude of response to unloading and Cb treatment followed a general regional pattern and was muscle and type specific. The highest magnitude of response to unloading was in predominantly slow-twitch muscles, and the least responsive were the predominately fast-twitch muscles.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
- Riley DA, Ellis S, Slocum GR, Satyanarayana T, Bain JL, Sedlak FR: Hypogravity-induced atrophy of rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Muscle Nerve 1987;10:560–568.
- Riley DA: Is skeletal muscle ready for long-term spaceflight and return to gravity? Adv Space Biol Med 1999;7:31–48.
- Martin TP, Edgerton VR, Grindeland RE: Influence of spaceflight on rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 1988;65:2318–2325.
- Baldwin KM: Effect of spaceflight on the functional, biochemical, and metabolic properties of skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:983–987.
- Dudley GA, Hather BM, Buchanan P: Skeletal muscle responses to unloading with special reference to man. J Fla Med Assoc 1992;79:525–529.
- Akima H, Kawakami Y, Kubo K, Sekiguchi C, Ohshima H, Miyamoto A, Fukunaga T: Effect of short-duration spaceflight on thigh and leg muscle volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:1743–1747.
- Taylor DC, Brooks DE, Ryan JB: Anabolic-androgenic steroid administration causes hypertrophy of immobilized and nonimmobilized skeletal muscle in a sedentary rabbit model. Am J Sports Med 1999;27:718–727.
- Kanda F, Takatani K, Okuda S, Matsushita T, Chihara K: Preventive effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on steroid-induced muscle atrophy. Muscle Nerve 1999;22:213–217.
- Maltin CA, Delday MI, Hay SM, Baillie AG: Denervation increases clenbuterol sensitivity in muscle from young rats. Muscle Nerve 1992;15:188–192.
- Maltin CA, Delday MI, Watson JS, Heys SD, Nevison IM, Ritchie IK, Gibson PH: Clenbuterol, a β-adrenoreceptor agonist, increases relative muscle strength in orthopedic patients. Clin Sci 1993;84:651–654.
- Zeman RJ, Ludemann R, Etlinger JD: Clenbuterol, a beta 2-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles. Am J Physiol 1987;252:E152–E155.
- Zeman RJ, Hirschman A, Hirschman ML, Guo G, Etlinger JD: Clenbuterol, a beta 2-receptor agonist, reduces net bone loss in denervated hindlimbs. Am J Physiol 1991;261:E285–E289.
- Apseloff G, Girten B, Walker M, Shepard DR, Krecic ME, Stern LS, Gerber N: Aminohydroxybutane bisphosphonate and clenbuterol prevent bone changes and retard muscle atrophy respectively in tail-suspended rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993;264:1071–1078.
- von Deutsch DA, Abukhalaf IK, Wineski LE, Aboul-Enein HY, Pitts SA, Parks BA, Oster RA, Paulsen DF, Potter DE: Beta-agonist-induced alterations in organ weights and protein content: Comparison of racemic clenbuterol and its enantiomers. Chirality 2000;12:637–648.
- Kissel JT, McDermott MP, Natarajan R, Mendell JR, Pandya S, King WM, Griggs RC, Tawil R: Pilot trial of albuterol in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. FSH-DY Group. Neurology 1998;50:1402–1406.
- Delbeke FT, Desmet N, Debackere M: The abuse of doping agents in competing body builders in Flanders (1988–1993). Int J Sports Med 1995;16:66–70.
- Elliott CT, Crooks SR, McEvoy JG, McCaughey WJ, Hewitt SA, Patterson D, Kilpatrick D: Observations on the effects of long-term withdrawal on carcass composition and residue concentrations in clenbuterol-medicated cattle. Vet Res Commun 1993;17:459–468.
- Elliott CT, Shortt HD, Kennedy DG, McCaughey WJ: Monitoring for clenbuterol abuse in N. Ireland 1989–1994. Vet Q 1996;18:41–44.
- Wineski LE, von Deutsch DA, Abukhalaf IK, Pitts SA, Potter DE, Paulsen DF: Clenbuterol effects on skeletal muscle in hind-limb-suspended, mature male rats. Cells Tissues Organs, in press.
- Cardoso LA, Stock MJ: Effect of clenbuterol on growth and body composition during food restriction in rats. J Anim Sci 1996;74:2245–2252.
- Smith DJ: The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and tissue residues of beta-adrenergic agonists in livestock. J Anim Sci 1998;76:173–194.
- Morey ER: Spaceflight and bone turnover: Correlation with a new rat model of weightlessness. Bioscience 1979;29:168–172.
- Wronski TJ, Morey ER: Recovery of the rat skeleton from the adverse effects of simulated weightlessness. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res 1983;4:347–352.
- Morey-Holton ER, Globus RK: Hindlimb unloading of growing rats: A model for predicting skeletal changes during space flight. Bone 1998;22(suppl 5):83–88.
- Brunner LJ, DiPiro JT, Feldman S: Antipyrine pharmacokinetics in the tail-suspended rat model. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995;274:345–352.
- Hayes A, Williams DA: Examining potential drug therapies for muscular dystrophy utilizing the dy/dy mouse. I. Clenbuterol. Neurol Sci 1998;157:122–128.
- Hardin AO, Lima JJ: Beta-2-adrenoceptor agonist-induced down-regulation after short-term exposure. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 1999;19:835–852.
- Riley DA, Slocum GR, Bain JL, Sedlak FR, Sowa TE, Mellender JW: Rat hindlimb unloading: Soleus histochemistry, ultrastructure, and electromyography. J Appl Physiol 1990;69:58–66.
- Riley DA, Ilyina-Kakueva EI, Ellis S, Bain JL, Slocum GR, Sedlak FR: Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats. FASEB J 1990;4:84–91.
- Riley DA, Ellis S, Slocum GR, Sedlak FR, Bain JL, Krippendorf BB, Lehman CT, Macias MY, Thompson JL, Vijayan K, De Bruin JA: In-flight and postflight changes in skeletal muscles of SLS-1 and SLS-2 spaceflown rats. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:133–144.
- Talmadge RJ, Roy RR, Edgerton VR: Distribution of myosin heavy chain isoforms in non-weight-bearing rat soleus muscle fibers. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:2540–2546.
- Thompson JL, Balog EM, Fitts RH, Riley DA: Five myofibrillar lesion types in eccentrically challenged, unloaded rat adductor longus muscle – a test model. Anat Rec 1999;254:39–52.
- Abukhalaf IK, von Deutsch DA, Wineski L, Parks BA, Paulsen DF, Abul-Enein HY, Potter DE: Comparative analytical quantitation of clenbuterol in biological matrices using GC-MS and EIA. Biomed Chromatogr 2000;14:99–105.
- Harlan World Headquarters: Rat growth curve data. Website http://www.harlan.com.
- Pitts GC, Ushakov AS, Pace N, Smith AH, Rahlmann DF, Smirnova TA: Effects of weightlessness on body composition in the rat. Am J Physiol 1983;244:R332–R337.
- Feldman S, Brunner LJ: Small animal model of weightlessness for pharmacokinetic evaluation. J Clin Pharmacol 1994;34:677–683.
- Saivin S, Pavy-Le Traon A, Cornac A, Guell A, Houin G: Impact of a four-day head-down tilt (–6 degrees) on lidocaine pharmacokinetics used as probe to evaluate hepatic blood flow. J Clin Pharmacol 1995;35:697–704.
- Meyer HH, Rinke LM: The pharmacokinetics and residues of clenbuterol in veal calves. J Anim Sci 1991;69:4538–4544.
- McDonald KS, Delp MD, Fitts RH: Effect of hindlimb unweighting on tissue blood flow in the rat. J Appl Physiol 1992;72:2210–2218.
- Delp MD: Myogenic and vasoconstrictor responsiveness of skeletal muscle arterioles is diminished by hindlimb unloading. J Appl Physiol 1999;86:1178–1184.
- Delp MD, Colleran PN, Wilkerson MK, McCurdy MR, Muller-Delp J: Structural and functional remodeling of skeletal muscle microvasculature is induced by simulated microgravity. Am J Physiol 2000;278:H1866–H1873.
- Thompson LV, Johnson SA, Shoeman JA: Single soleus muscle fiber function after hindlimb unweighting in adult and aged rats. J Appl Physiol 1998;84:1937–1942.