Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 14, Suppl. 1, 2001
Issue release date: August 2001
Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2001;14(suppl 1):92–97

The Human Stratum corneum Layer: An Effective Barrier against Dermal Uptake of Different Forms of Topically Applied Micronised Titanium Dioxide

Pflücker F. · Wendel V. · Hohenberg H. · Gärtner E. · Will T. · Pfeiffer S. · Wepf R. · Gers-Barlag H.
aResearch and Development, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, bDepartment of Electron Microscopy, Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Hamburg, and cResearch and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Electron microscopy visualisation and light microscopic investigations of three different application forms of titanium dioxide proved that neither surface characteristics, particle size nor shape of the micronised titanium dioxide result in any dermal absorption of this substance: Micronised titanium dioxide is solely deposited on the outermost surface of the stratum corneum and cannot be detected in deeper stratum corneum layers, the human epidermis and dermis.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Pflücker F, Hohenberg H, Hölzle E, Will T, Pfeiffer S, Wepf R, Diembeck W, Wenck H, Gers-Barlag H: The outermost stratum corneum layer is an effective barrier against dermal uptake of topically applied micronized titanium dioxide. Int J Cos Sci 1999;21:399–411.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50