The Human Stratum corneum Layer: An Effective Barrier against Dermal Uptake of Different Forms of Topically Applied Micronised Titanium DioxidePflücker F.a · Wendel V.c · Hohenberg H.b · Gärtner E.c · Will T.c · Pfeiffer S.c · Wepf R.c · Gers-Barlag H.c
aResearch and Development, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, bDepartment of Electron Microscopy, Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Hamburg, and cResearch and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2001;14(suppl 1):92–97 (DOI:10.1159/000056396)
Electron microscopy visualisation and light microscopic investigations of three different application forms of titanium dioxide proved that neither surface characteristics, particle size nor shape of the micronised titanium dioxide result in any dermal absorption of this substance: Micronised titanium dioxide is solely deposited on the outermost surface of the stratum corneum and cannot be detected in deeper stratum corneum layers, the human epidermis and dermis.
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