Table of Contents
To view the fulltext, log-in or choose pay-per-view options:
Get Access

The Human Stratum corneum Layer: An Effective Barrier against Dermal Uptake of Different Forms of Topically Applied Micronised Titanium Dioxide

Pflücker F.a · Wendel V.c · Hohenberg H.b · Gärtner E.c · Will T.c · Pfeiffer S.c · Wepf R.c · Gers-Barlag H.c
aResearch and Development, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, bDepartment of Electron Microscopy, Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Hamburg, and cResearch and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2001;14(suppl 1):92–97 (DOI:10.1159/000056396)


Electron microscopy visualisation and light microscopic investigations of three different application forms of titanium dioxide proved that neither surface characteristics, particle size nor shape of the micronised titanium dioxide result in any dermal absorption of this substance: Micronised titanium dioxide is solely deposited on the outermost surface of the stratum corneum and cannot be detected in deeper stratum corneum layers, the human epidermis and dermis.


Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50