To view the fulltext, please log in
To view the pdf, please log in
Three highly homologous homeobox genes (caupolican, araucan and mirror) have been identified in Drosophila. These genes belong to the novel Iroquois complex, which acts as a pre-pattern molecule in Drosophila neurogenesis. Recently several vertebrate Iroquois homologues (Irx) were isolated and found to be involved in pattern formation of various tissues. Here we report cytogenetic mapping of four human and five chicken Iroquois genes by FISH. Our findings revealed that vertebrate Irx genes are clustered at two different loci.
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
- Baldini A, Lindsay EA: Mapping human YAC clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Alu-PCR from single yeast colonies, in Methods in Molecular Biology: In Situ Hybridization Protocols 33:75–85 (1994).
- Bao ZZ, Broneau BG, Seidman JG, Seidman CE, Cepko CL: Regulation of chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart by Irx4. Science 283:1161–1164 (1999).
- Bellefroid EJ, Kobbe A, Gruss P, Pieler T, Gurdon JB, Papalopulu N: Xiro3 encodes a Xenopus homolog of the Drosophila Iroquois genes and functions in neural specification. EMBO J 17:191–203 (1998).
- Blanks JC, Mullen RJ, LaVail MM: Retinal degeneration in the pcd cerebellar mutant mouse. II. Electron microscopic analysis. J Comp Neurol 212:231–246 (1982).
- Bosse A, Zulch A, Becker MB, Torres M, Gomez-Skarmeta JL, Modolell J, Gruss P: Identification of the vertebrate Iroquois homeobox gene family with overlapping expression during early development of the nervous system. Mech Dev 69:169–181 (1997).
- Bosse A, Stoykova A, Nieselt-Struwe K, Chowdhury K, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Gruss P: Identification of a novel mouse Iroquois homeobox gene Irx5 and chromosomal localization of all members of the mouse Iroquois gene family. Dev Dyn 218:160–174 (2000).
- Bruneau BG, Bao ZZ, Tanaka M, Schott JJ, Izumo S, Cepko CL, Seidman JG, Seidman CE: Cardiac expression of the ventricle-specific homeobox gene Irx4 is modulated by Nkx2-5 and dHand. Dev Biol 217:266–277 (2000).
- Burglin TR: Analysis of TALE superclass homeobox genes (MEIS, PBC, KNOX, Iroquois, TGIF) reveals a novel domain conserved between plants and animals. Nucl Acids Res 25:4173–4180 (1997).
- Cavodeassi F, Diez Del Corral R, Campuzano S, Dominguez M: Compartments and organizing boundaries in the Drosophila eye: the role of the homeodomain Iroquois proteins. Development 126:4933–4942 (1999).
- Cavodeassi F, Modolell J, Campuzano S: The iroquois homeobox genes function as dorsal selectors in the Drosophila head. Development 127:1921–1929 (2000).
- Cohen DR, Cheng CW, Cheng SH, Hui C: Expression of two novel mouse iroquois homeobox genes during neurogenesis. Mech Dev 91:317–321 (2000).
- Dominguez M, de Celis JF: A dorsal/ventral boundary established by Notch controls growth and polarity in the Drosophila eye. Nature 396:276–278 (1998).
- Funayama N, Sato Y, Matsumoto K, Ogura T, Takahashi Y: Coelom formation: binary decision of the lateral plate mesoderm is controlled by the ectoderm. Development 126:4129–4138 (1999).
- Gomez-Skarmeta JL, del Corral RD, de la Calle-Mustienes E, Ferre-Marco D, Modolell J: Araucan and caupolican two members of the novel iroquois complex encode homeoproteins that control proneural and vein-forming genes. Cell 85:95–105 (1996).
- Gomez-Skarmeta JL, Glavic A, de la Calle-Mustienes E, Modolell J, Mayor R: Xiro a Xenopus homolog of the Drosophila Iroquois complex genes controls development at the neural plate. EMBO J 17:181–190 (1998).
- Goriely A, Diez del Corral R, Storey KG: c-Irx2 expression reveals an early subdivision of the neural plate in the chick embryo. Mech Dev 87:203–206 (1999).
- Grillenzoni N, van Helden J, Dambly-Chaudiere C, Ghysen A: The iroquois complex controls the somatotopy of Drosophila notum mechanosensory projections. Development 125:3563–3569 (1998).
- Groenen MAM, Cheng HH, Bumstead N, Benkel B, Briles WE, et al: A consensus linkage map of the chicken genome. Genome Res 10:137–147 (2000).
- Heymer J, Kuehn M, Ruther U: The expression pattern of nodal and lefty in the mouse mutant Ft suggests a function in the establishment of handedness. Mech Dev 66:5–11 (1997).
- Kehl BT, Cho KO, Choi KW: mirror a Drosophila homeobox gene in the Iroquois complex is required for sensory organ and alula formation. Development 125:1217–1227 (1998).
- Leyns L, Gomez-Skarmeta JL, Dambly-Chaudiere C: iroquois: a prepattern gene that controls the formation of bristles on the thorax of Drosophila. Mech Dev 59:63–72 (1996).
- Mallet J, Huchet M, Pougeois R, Changeux JP: Anatomical physiological and biochemical studies on the cerebellum from mutant mice. III. Protein differences associated with the weaver, staggerer and nervous mutations. Brain Res 103:291–312 (1976).
- Matsuda Y, Chapman VM: Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in genome analysis of the mouse. Electrophoresis 16:261–272 (1995).
- McNeill H, Yang CH, Brodsky M, Ungos J, Simon MA: mirror encodes a novel PBX-class homeoprotein that functions in the definition of the dorsal-ventral border in the Drosophila eye. Genes Dev 11:1073–1082 (1997).
- Mullen R, LaVail MM: Two new types of retinal degeneration in cerebeller mutant mice. Nature 258:528–530 (1975).
- Mullen RJ, Eicher EM, Sidman RL: Purkinje cell degeneration, a new neurological mutation in the mouse. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 73:208–212 (1976).
- Peters T, Dildrop R, Ausmeier K, Ruther U: Organization of mouse Iroquois homeobox genes in two clusters suggests a conserved regulation and function in vertebrate development. Genome Res 10:1453-1462 (2000).
- Suzuki T, Kurosaki T, Shimada K, Kansaku N, Kuhlein U, et al: Cytogenetic mapping of 31 functional genes on chicken chromosomes by direct R-banding FISH. Cytogenet Cell Genet 87:32–40 (1999).
- Tan JT, Korzh V, Gong Z: Expression of zebrafish iroquois homeobox gene, Ziro3 in the midline axial structures and central nervous system. Mech Dev 87:165–168 (1999).