Vitamin Replacement Therapy in Renal Failure PatientsMakoff R.
R & D Laboratories, Inc, Marina del Rey, Calif., USA
Renal failure patients require vitamin replacement therapy that addresses the specialized needs of renal failure. Four factors including restricted diet, uremic toxins, drug-nutrient interactions, and in ESRD, the dialysis process, affect the normal absorption, retention and activity of necessary micronutrients which support all aspects of carbohydrate, protein, lipid and nucleic acid metabolism. Studies have shown that the typical renal failure diet is low in B vitamins, that uremic factors affect folate and pyridoxine activities and that many B vitamins are lost on dialysis at a rate greater than are lost with normal urinary excretion. In addition, retention of vitamin A or inappropriately high supplementation of vitamin C may cause toxicities which exacerbate existing pathologies. Further, emerging research suggests some vitamins such as folic acid and pyridoxine, if provided in higher than normal amounts, may have an impact on reducing the risk of some aspects of renal cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to supplement some vitamins, and use restraint in the supplementation of others. It is clear that renal failure patients, including predialysis, ESRD and transplant patients need specialized supplementation that meets the requirements of disease and its management.
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