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Vol. 25, No. 4-6, 1999
Issue release date: July–December 1999
Miner Electrolyte Metab 1999;25:349–351

Vitamin Replacement Therapy in Renal Failure Patients

Makoff R.
R & D Laboratories, Inc, Marina del Rey, Calif., USA

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Renal failure patients require vitamin replacement therapy that addresses the specialized needs of renal failure. Four factors including restricted diet, uremic toxins, drug-nutrient interactions, and in ESRD, the dialysis process, affect the normal absorption, retention and activity of necessary micronutrients which support all aspects of carbohydrate, protein, lipid and nucleic acid metabolism. Studies have shown that the typical renal failure diet is low in B vitamins, that uremic factors affect folate and pyridoxine activities and that many B vitamins are lost on dialysis at a rate greater than are lost with normal urinary excretion. In addition, retention of vitamin A or inappropriately high supplementation of vitamin C may cause toxicities which exacerbate existing pathologies. Further, emerging research suggests some vitamins such as folic acid and pyridoxine, if provided in higher than normal amounts, may have an impact on reducing the risk of some aspects of renal cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to supplement some vitamins, and use restraint in the supplementation of others. It is clear that renal failure patients, including predialysis, ESRD and transplant patients need specialized supplementation that meets the requirements of disease and its management.

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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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