Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 7, No. 2, 2002
Issue release date: March–April 2002
Audiol Neurootol 2002;7:71–99
(DOI:10.1159/000057656)

The Neurophysiology of Auditory Perception: From Single Units to Evoked Potentials

Eggermont J.J. · Ponton C.W.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Evoked electric potential and magnetic field studies have the immense benefit that they can be conducted in awake, behaving humans and can be directly correlated with aspects of perception. As such, they are powerful objective indicators of perceptual properties. However, given a set of evoked potential and/or evoked field waveforms and their source locations, obtained for an exhaustive set of stimuli and stimulus contrasts, is it possible to determine blindly, i.e. predict, what the stimuli or stimulus contrasts were? If this can be done with some success, then a useful amount of information resides in scalp-recorded activity for, e.g., the study of auditory speech processing. In this review, we compare neural representations based on single-unit and evoked response activity for vowels and consonant-vowel phonemes with distinctions in formant glides and voice onset time. We conclude that temporal aspects of evoked responses can track some of the dominant response features present in single-unit activity. However, N1 morphology does not reliably predict phonetic identification of stimuli varying in voice onset time, and the reported appearance of a double-peak onset response in aggregate recordings from the auditory cortex does not indicate a cortical correlate of the perception of voicelessness. This suggests that temporal aspects of single-unit population activity are likely not inclusive enough for representation of categorical perception boundaries. In contrast to population activity based on single-unit recording, the ability to accurately localize the sources of scalp-evoked activity is one of the bottlenecks in obtaining an accessible neurophysiological substrate of perception. Attaining this is one of the requisites to arrive at the prospect of blind determination of stimuli on the basis of evoked responses. At the current sophistication level of recording and analysis, evoked responses remain in the realm of extremely sensitive objective indicators of stimulus change or stimulus differences. As such, they are signs of perceptual activity, but not comprehensive representations thereof.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Abeles M: Local cortical circuits. Berlin, Springer, 1982.
  2. Alcaini M, Giard MH, Thevenet M, Pernier J: Two separate frontal components in the N1 wave of the human auditory evoked response. Psychophysiology 1994;6:611–615.
  3. Alho K, Tervaniemi M, Huotilainen M, Lavikainen J, Tiitinen H, Ilmoniemi RJ, Knuutila J, Näätänen R: Processing of complex sounds in the human auditory cortex as revealed by magnetic brain responses. Psychophysiology 1996;33:369–375.
  4. Alku P, Sivonen P, Palomäki K, Tiitinen H: The periodic structure of vowel sounds is reflected in human electromagnetic brain responses. Neurosci Lett 2001;298:25–28.

    External Resources

  5. Aulanko R, Hari R, Lounasmaa OV, Näätänen R, Sams M: Phonetic invariance in the human auditory cortex. Neuroreport 1993;4:1356–1358.
  6. Barth DS, Di S: Three-dimensional analysis of auditory-evoked potentials in rate neocortex. J Neurophysiol 1990;64:1527–1536.

    External Resources

  7. Barth DS, Di S: The functional anatomy of middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Brain Res 1991;565:109–115.
  8. Belin P, Zatorre RJ, Lafaille P, Ahad P, Pike B: Voice-selective areas in human auditory cortex. Nature 2000;403:309–312.
  9. Bertoli S, Heimberg S, Smurzynski J, Probst R: Mismatch negativity and psychoacoustic measures of gap detection in normally hearing subjects. Psychophysiology 2001;38:334–342.
  10. Bierman S, Heil P: Parallels between timing of onset responses of single neurons in cat and of evoked magnetic fields in human auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol 2000;84:2426–2439.
  11. Buchwald JS, Hinman C, Norman RJ, Huang C-M, Brown KA: Middle- and long-latency auditory evoked responses recorded from the vertex of normal and chronically lesioned cats. Brain Res 1981;205:91–109.
  12. Buchwald JS, Rubinstein EH, Schwafel J, Strandburg RJ: Midlatency auditory evoked responses: Differential effects of a cholinergic agonist and antagonist. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;80:303–309.
  13. Cauller LJ, Kulics AT: A comparison of awake and sleeping cortical states by analysis of the somatosensory-evoked response of postcentral area 1 in rhesus monkey. Exp Brain Res 1988;72:584–592.
  14. Cauller LJ, Kulics AT: The neural basis of the behaviorally relevant N1 component of the somatosensory-evoked potential in SI cortex of awake monkeys: Signal conscious touch sensation. Exp Brain Res 1991;84:607–619.
  15. Celesia GG: Organization of auditory cortical areas in man. Brain 1976;99:403–414.

    External Resources

  16. de Charms CR, Blake DT, Merzenich MM: Optimizing sound features for cortical neurons. Science 1998;280:1439–1443.
  17. Cheour M, Ceponien R, Lehtokoski A, Luuk A, Allik J, Alho K, Näätänen R: Development of language-specific phoneme representations in the infant brain. Nat Neurosci 1998;1:351–353.
  18. Crottaz-Herbette S, Ragot R: Perception of complex sounds: N1 latency codes pitch and topography codes spectra. Clin Neurophysiol 2000;111:1759–1766.

    External Resources

  19. Csépe V, Karmos G, Molnár M: Evoked potential correlates of stimulus deviance during wakefulness and sleep in cat – Animal model of mismatch negativity. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1987;66:571–578.
  20. Dale AM, Halgren E: Spatiotemporal mapping of brain activity by integration of multiple imaging modalities. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2001;11:202–208.

    External Resources

  21. Davis H: Principles of electric response audiometry. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1976;suppl 28:1–96.
  22. Dehaene-Lambertz G: Electrophysiological correlates of categorical phoneme perception in adults. Neuroreport 1997;8:919–924.

    External Resources

  23. Deiber MP, Ibañez V, Fischer C, Perrin F, Maugière P: Sequential mapping favours the hypothesis of distinct generators for Na and Pa middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1988;71:187–197.

    External Resources

  24. Depireux DA, Simon JZ, Klein DJ, Shamma SA: Spectro-temporal response field characterization with dynamic ripples in ferret primary auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol 2001;85:1220–1234.
  25. Di S, Barth DS: The functional anatomy of middle-latency auditory evoked potentials: Thalamocortical connections. J Neurophysiol 1992;68:425–431.

    External Resources

  26. Dickerson LW, Buchwald JS: Midlatency auditory-evoked responses: Effect of scopolamine in the cat and implications for brain stem cholinergic mechanism. Exp Neurol 1991;112:229–239.

    External Resources

  27. Diesch E, Eulitz C, Hampson S, Ross B: The neurotopography of vowels as mirrored by evoked magnetic field measurements. Brain Lang 1996;53:143–168.

    External Resources

  28. Diesch E, Luce T: Magnetic fields elicited by tones and vowel formants reveal tonotopy and nonlinear summation of cortical activation. Psychophysiology 1997;34:501–510.

    External Resources

  29. Diesch E, Luce T: Topographic and temporal indices of vowel spectral envelope extraction in the human auditory cortex. J Cogn Neurosci 2000;12:878–893.
  30. Dorman MF, Dougherty K: Shifts in phonetic identification with changes in signal presentation level. J Acoust Soc Am 1981;69:1439–1440.
  31. Eggermont JJ: Stimulus induced and spontaneous rhythmic firing of single-units in cat primary auditory cortex. Hear Res 1992;61:1–11.
  32. Eggermont JJ: Representation of a voice onset time continuum in primary auditory cortex of the cat. J Acoust Soc Am 1995;98:911–920.

    External Resources

  33. Eggermont JJ: Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the cat. J Neurophysiol 1999;81:2570–2581.

    External Resources

  34. Eggermont JJ: Between sound and perception: Reviewing the search for a neural code. Hear Res 2001;157:1–42.

    External Resources

  35. Eggermont JJ, Schmidt PH: The auditory brainstem response; in Colon EJ, Visser SL (eds): Evoked Potential Manual. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990, pp 41–77.
  36. Eggermont JJ, Smith GM: Synchrony between single-unit activity and local field potentials in relation to periodicity coding in primary auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol 1995;73:227–245.

    External Resources

  37. Elberling C, Bak C, Kofoed B, Lebech J, Saremark K: Auditory magnetic fields: Source localization and ‘tonotopical organization’ in the right hemisphere of the human brain. Scand Audiol 1982;11:59–63.
  38. Eulitz C, Diesch E, Pantev C, Hampson S, Elbert T: Magnetic and electric brain activity evoked by the processing of tone and vowel stimuli. J Neurosci 1995;15:2748–2755.

    External Resources

  39. Fishman YI, Reser DH, Arezzo JC, Steinschneider M: Pitch vs. spectral encoding of harmonic complex tones in primary auditory cortex of the awake monkey. Brain Res 1998;786:18–30.

    External Resources

  40. Fishman YI, Reser DH, Arezzo JC, Steinschneider M: Complex tone processing in primary auditory cortex of the awake monkey. II. Pitch versus critical band representation. J Acoust Soc Am 2000;108:247–262.
  41. Forss N, Mäkelä JP, McEvoy L, Hari R: Temporal integration and oscillatory responses of the human auditory cortex revealed by evoked magnetic fields to click trains. Hear Res 1993;68:89–96.
  42. Gaese BH, Ostwald J: Temporal coding of amplitude and frequency modulation in the rat auditory cortex. Eur J Neurosci 1995;7:438–450.
  43. Galambos R, Juhasz G: The contribution of glial cells to spontaneous and evoked potentials. Int J Psychophysiol 1997;26:229–236.

    External Resources

  44. Griffiths TD, Büchtel C, Frackowiak RSJ, Patterson RD: Analysis of temporal structure in sound by the human brain. Nat Neurosci 1998;1:422–427.
  45. Hari R: Magnetic evoked fields of the human brain: Basic principles and applications. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;suppl 41:3–12.
  46. Hari R, Pelizzone M, Makela JP, Hallstrom J, Leinonen L, Lounasmaa OV: Neuromagnetic responses of the human auditory cortex to on- and offsets of noise bursts. Audiology 1987;26:31–43.
  47. Harrison JB, Woolf NJ, Buchwald JS: Cholinergic neurons of the feline pontomesencephalon. I. Essential role in ‘wave A’ generation. Brain Res 1990;520:43–54.
  48. Heil P, Irvine DRF: The posterior field P of cat auditory cortex: Coding of envelope transients. Cereb Cortex 1998;8:125–141.

    External Resources

  49. Heil P, Rajan R, Irvine DRF: Sensitivity of neurons in cat primary auditory cortex to tones and frequency-modulated stimuli. I. Effects of variation of stimulus parameters. Hear Res 1992a;63:108–134.
  50. Heil P, Rajan R, Irvine DRF: Sensitivity of neurons in cat primary auditory cortex to tones and frequency-modulated stimuli. II. Organization of response properties along the ‘isofrequency’ dimension. Hear Res 1992b;63:135–156.
  51. Horikawa J, Nasu M, Taniguchi I: Optical recording of responses to frequency-modulated sounds in the auditory cortex. Neuroreport 1998;9:799–802.

    External Resources

  52. Howard MA III, Volkov IO, Abbas PJ, Damasio H, Ollendieck MC, Granner MA: A chronic microelectrode investigation of the tonotopic organization of human auditory cortex. Brain Res 1996;724:260–264.

    External Resources

  53. Howard MA III, Volkov IO, Mirsky R, Garell PC, Noh MD, Granner M, Damasio H, Steinschneider M, Reale PC, Hind JE, Brugge JF: Auditory cortex of the human posterior superior temporal gyrus. J Comp Neurol 2000;416:79–92.
  54. Hyde M: The N1 response and its applications. Audiol Neurootol 1997;2:281–307.
  55. Javitt DC, Schroeder CE, Steinschneider M, Arezzo JC, Vaughan HG: Demonstration of mismatch negativity in the monkey. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1992;83:87–90.
  56. Javitt DC, Steinschneider M, Schroeder CE, Arezzo JC: Role of cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in auditory sensory memory and mismatch negativity generation: Implications for schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:11962–11967.
  57. Javitt DC, Steinschneider M, Schroeder CE, Vaughan HG, Arezzo JC: Detection of stimulus deviance within primary auditory cortex: Intracortical mechanisms of mismatch negativity (MMN) generation. Brain Res 1994;667:192–200.
  58. Kaas JH, Hackett TA: Subdivisions of auditory cortex and processing streams in primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:11793–11799.
  59. Kaga K, Hink RF, Shinoda Y, Suzuki J: Evidence for a primary cortical origin of a middle latency auditory evoked potential in cats. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1980;50:254–266.
  60. Kane NM, Curry SH, Butler SR, Cummins BH: Electrophysiological indicator of awakening from coma. Lancet 1993;341:688.
  61. Kanno A, Nakasato N, Murayama N, Yoshimoto T: Middle and long latency peak sources in auditory evoked magnetic fields for tone bursts in humans. Neurosci Lett 2000;293:187–190.

    External Resources

  62. Kaukoranta E, Hari R, Lounasmaa OV: Responses of the human auditory cortex to vowel onset after fricative consonants. Exp Brain Res 1987;69:19–23.
  63. Klimesch W, Doppelmayr M, Pachinger T, Russegger H: Event-related desynchronization in the alpha band and the processing of semantic information. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 1997;6:83–94.
  64. Kraus N, McGee T: Electrophysiology of the human auditory system; in Popper AN, Fay RR (eds): The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neurophysiology. New York, Springer, 1992, pp 335–403.
  65. Kraus N, McGee T, Carrell T, King C, Littman T, Nicol T: Discrimination of speech-like contrasts in the auditory thalamus and cortex. J Acoust Soc Am 1994a;96:2758–2768.
  66. Kraus N, McGee T, Carrell T, Sharma A, Micco A, Nicol T: Speech-evoked cortical potentials in children. J Am Acad Audiol 1993a;4:238–248.
  67. Kraus N, McGee TJ, Carrell TD, Zecker SG, Nicol TG, Koch DB: Auditory neurophysiologic responses and discrimination deficits in children with learning problems. Science 1996;273:971–973.
  68. Kraus N, McGee T, Littman T, Nicol T: Reticular formation influences on primary and non-primary auditory pathways as reflected by the middle latency response. Brain Res 1992;587:186–194.
  69. Kraus N, McGee T, Littman T, Nicol T, King C: Nonprimary auditory thalamic representation of acoustic change. J Neurophysiol 1994b;72:1270–1277.
  70. Kraus N, Micco AG, Koch DB, McGee T, Carrell T, Sharma A, Wiet RJ, Weingarten CZ: The mismatch negativity cortical-evoked potential elicited by speech in cochlear implant users. Hear Res 1993b;65:118–124.
  71. Kraus N, Smith DI, Grossmann J: Cortical mapping of the auditory middle latency response in the unanesthetized guinea pig. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1985;62:219–226.
  72. Kraus N, Smith DI, McGee T: Midline and temporal lobe MLRs in the guinea pig originate from different generator systems: A conceptual framework for new and existing data. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1988;70:541–558.
  73. Langner G: Periodicity coding in the auditory system. Hear Res 1992;60:115–142.
  74. Langner G, Sams M, Heil P, Schulze H: Frequency and periodicity are represented in orthogonal maps in the human auditory cortex: Evidence from magnetoencephalography. J Comp Physiol 1997;A181:665–676.
  75. Levänen S, Hari R, McEvoy L, Sams M: Responses of the human auditory cortex to changes in one versus two stimulus features. Exp Brain Res 1993;97:177–183.
  76. Liberman MC: Auditory-nerve responses from cats raised in a low-noise chamber. J Acoust Soc Am 1978;63:442–455.
  77. Liégeois-Chauvel C, de Graaf JB, Laguitton V, Chauvel P: Specialization of left auditory cortex for speech perception in man depends on temporal coding. Cereb Cortex 1999;9:484–496.
  78. Liégeois-Chauvell C, Musolino A, Badier JM, Marquis P, Chauvel P: Evoked potentials recorded from the auditory cortex in man: Evaluation and topography of the middle latency components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1994;92:204–214.
  79. Liégeois-Chauvel C, Musolino A, Chauvel P: Localization of the primary auditory area in man. Brain 1991;114:139–153.

    External Resources

  80. Lisman JE, Fellous JM, Wang X-J: A role for NMDA-receptor channels in working memory. Nat Neurosci 1998;1:273–275.
  81. Lu T, Liang L, Wang X: Neural representations of temporally asymmetric stimuli in the auditory cortex of awake primates. J Neurophysiol 2001;85:2364–2380.

    External Resources

  82. Lütkenhöner B, Steinsträter O: High-precision neuromagnetic study of the functional organization of the human auditory cortex. Audiol Neurootol 1998;3:191–213.
  83. McCallum WC, Curry SH: Hemisphere differences in event related potentials and CNVs associated with monaural stimuli and lateralized motor responses; in Lehmann D, Callaway E (eds): Human Evoked Potentials: Applications and Problems. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1979, pp 235–250.
  84. McCallum WC, Curry SH: The form and distribution of auditory evoked potentials and CNVs when stimuli and responses are lateralized; in Lehmann D, Callaway E (eds): Progress in Brain Research. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1980, vol 54: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain: Electrical potentials, behaviour and clinical use, pp 767–775.
  85. McGee T, Kraus N, Comperatore C, Nicol T: Subcortical and cortical components of the MLR generating system. Brain Res 1991;544:211–220.
  86. McGee T, Kraus N, Littman T, Nicol T: Contributions of medial geniculate body subdivisions to the middle latency response. Hear Res 1992;61:147–154.
  87. Makeig S, Westerfield M, Jung TP, Covington J, Townsend J, Sejnowski TJ, Courchesne E: Functionally independent components of the late positive event-related potential during visual spatial attention. J Neurosci 1999;19:2665–2680.

    External Resources

  88. Martin BA, Kurtzberg D, Stapells DR: The effects of decreased audibility produced by high-pass noise masking on N1 and the mismatch negativity to speech sounds /ba/ and /da/. J Speech Lang Hear Res 1999;42:271–286.

    External Resources

  89. Martin BA, Segal A, Kurtzberg D, Stapells DR: The effects of decreased audibility produced by high-pass noise masking on cortical event-related potentials to speech sounds /ba/ and /da/. J Acoust Soc Am 1997;101:1585–1599.
  90. Mendelson JR, Schreiner CE, Sutter ML, Grasse KL: Functional topography of cat primary auditory cortex: Responses to frequency-modulated sweeps. Exp Brain Res 1993;94:65–87.

    External Resources

  91. Miyazato H, Skinner RD, Garcia-Hill E: Neurochemical modulation of the P13 midlatency auditory evoked potential in the rat. Neuroscience 1999;92:911–920.
  92. Miyazato H, Skinner RD, Reese NB, Boop FA, Garcia-Hill E: A middle-latency auditory-evoked potential in the rat. Brain Res Bull 1995;37:247–255.

    External Resources

  93. Näätänen R: The perception of speech sound by the human brain as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN) and its magnetic equivalent (MMNm). Psychophysiology 2001;38:1–21.
  94. Näätänen R, Alho K: Mismatch negativity – The measure for central sound representation accuracy. Audiol Neurootol 1997;2:341–353.
  95. Näätänen R, Gaillard AWK, Mäntysalo S: Early selective attention effect on evoked potentals reinterpreted. Acta Psychol 1978;42:313–329.
  96. Näätänen R, Lehtokoski A, Lennes M, Cheour M, Huotilainen M, Iivonen A, Valnio M, Alku P, Iilmoniemi RJ, Luuk A, Allik J, Sinkkonen J, Alho K: Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature 1997;385:432–434.
  97. Näätänen R, Picton T: The N1 wave of the human electric and magnetic response to sound: A review and an analysis of component structure. Psychophysiology 1987;24:375–425.
  98. Näätänen R, Teder W, Alho K, Lavikainen J: Auditory attention and selective input modulation: A topographical ERP study. Neuroreport 1992;6:493–496.
  99. Näätänen R, Tervaniemi M, Sussman E, Paavilainen P, Winkler I: ‘Primitive intelligence’ in the auditory cortex. Trends Neurosci 2001;24:283–288.

    External Resources

  100. Näätänen R, Winkler I: The concept of auditory stimulus representation in cognitive neuroscience. Psychol Bull 1999;125:826–859.
  101. Nelken I, Versnel H: Responses to linear and logarithmic frequency-modulated sweeps in ferret primary auditory cortex. Eur J Neurosci 2000;12:549–562.
  102. Ohl FW, Scheich H: Orderly cortical representation of vowels based on formant interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:9440–9444.
  103. Ostroff JM, Martin BA, Boothroyd A: Cortical evoked response to acoustic change within a syllable. Ear Hear 1998;19:290–297.
  104. Paavilainen P, Jamarillo M, Näätänen R, Winkler I: Neuronal populations in the human brain extracting invariant relationships from acoustic variance. Neurosci Lett 1999;265:179–182.

    External Resources

  105. Pantev C, Elbert T, Makeig S, Hampson S, Eulitz C, Hoke M: Relationship of transient and steady-state auditory evoked fields. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993;88:389–396.
  106. Pantev C, Elbert T, Ross B, Eulitz C, Terhardt E: Binaural fusion and representation of virtual pitch in human auditory cortex. Hear Res 1996;100:164–170.

    External Resources

  107. Pantev C, Hoke M, Lütkenhöner B, Lehnertz K: Tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex: Pitch versus frequency representation. Science 1989;246:486–488.
  108. Parasuraman R, Beatty J: Brain events underlying detection and recognition of weak sensory signals. Science 1980;210:80–83.

    External Resources

  109. Pellizone M, Hari R, Mäkelä JP, Huttunen J, Ahlfors S, Hämäläinen M: Cortical origin of middle-latency auditory evoked responses in man. Neurosci Lett 1987;82:303–307.
  110. Phillips DP: Temporal response features of cat cortical neurons contributing to sensitivity to tones delivered in the presence of continuous noise. Hear Res 1985;19:253–268.
  111. Phillips DP, Farmer ME: Acquired word deafness, and the temporal grain of sound representation in the primary auditory cortex. Behav Brain Res 1990;40:85–94.
  112. Phillips DP, Semple MN, Kitzes LM: Factors shaping the tone level sensitivity of single neurons in posterior field of cat auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol 1995;73:674–686.

    External Resources

  113. Picton TW, Alain C, Otten L, Ritter W, Achim A: Mismatch negativity: Different water in the same river. Audiol Neurootol 2000;5:111–139.
  114. Picton TW, Hillyard SA, Krausz HI, Galambos R: Human auditory evoked potentials. I. Evaluation of components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1974;36:179–190.
  115. Plomp R: Aspects of Tone Sensation. New York, Academic Press, 1976.
  116. Ponton CW, Eggermont JJ, Kwong B, Don M: Maturation of human central auditory system activity: Evidence from multi-channel evoked potentials. Clin Neurophysiol 2000;111:220–236.
  117. Ragot R, Lepaul-Ercole R: Brain potentials as objective indexes of auditory pitch extraction from harmonics. Neuroreport 1996;7:905–909.

    External Resources

  118. Rauschecker JP, Tian B, Hauser M: Processing of complex sounds in the macaque nonprimary auditory cortex. Science 1995;268:111–114.
  119. Rauschecker JP, Tian B, Pons T, Mishkin M: Serial and parallel processing in rhesus monkey auditory cortex. J Comp Neurol 1997;382:89–103.
  120. Reese NB, Garcia-Hill E, Skinner RD: Auditory input to the pedunculopontine nucleus. I. Evoked potentials. Brain Res Bull 1995a;37:257–264.
  121. Reese NB, Garcia-Hill E, Skinner RD: Auditory input to the pedunculopontine nucleus. II. Unit responses. Brain Res Bull 1995b;37:265–273.
  122. Reite M, Adams M, Simon J, Teale P, Sheeder J, Richardson D, Grabbe R: Auditory M100 component 1: Relationship to Heschl’s gyri. Cogn Brain Res 1994;2:13–20.
  123. Reite M, Teale P, Zimmerman J, Davis K, Whalen J: Source location of a 50 ms latency auditory evoked field component. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1988;92:149–160.
  124. Rif J, Hari R, Hamalainen MS, Sams M: Auditory attention affects two different areas in the human supratemporal cortex. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;79:464–472.
  125. Rinne T, Alho K, Alku P, Holi M, Sinkkonen J, Virtanen J, Bertrand O, Näätänen R: Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100–150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport 1999;10:1113–1117.

    External Resources

  126. Roberts TP, Ferrari P, Pöppel D: Latency of evoked neuromagnetic M100 reflects perceptual and acoustic stimulus attributes. Neuroreport 1998;9:3265–3269.

    External Resources

  127. Roberts TP, Pöppel D: Latency of auditory evoked M100 as a function of tone frequency. Neuroreport 1996;7:1138–1140.
  128. Romani G-L, Williamson SJ, Kaufman L: Tonotopic organization of the human auditory cortex. Science 1982;216:1339–1340.
  129. Roitbak AI, Fanardjian VV, Melkonyan DS, Melkonyan AA: Contribution of glia and neurons to the surface-negative potentials of the cerebral cortex during its electrical stimulation. Neuroscience 1987;20:1057–1067.
  130. Scherg M, von Cramon D: Evoked dipole source potentials of the human auditory cortex. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1986;65:344–360.
  131. Scherg M, Picton TW: Separation and identification of event-related potential components by brain electric source analysis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;suppl 42:24–37.
  132. Scherg M, Vasjar J, Picton TW: A source analysis of the late human auditory evoked potentials. J Cogn Neurosci 1989;1:336–355.
  133. Shamma SA, Versnel H, Kowalski N: Ripple analysis in the ferret primary auditory cortex. I. Response characteristics of single-units to sinusoidally rippled spectra. Aud Neurosci 1993;1:233–254.
  134. Shapleske J, Rossell SL, Woodruff PWR, David AS: The planum temporale: A systematic, quantitative review of its structural, functional and clinical significance. Brain Res Rev 1999;29:26–49.
  135. Sharma A, Dorman MF: Cortical auditory evoked potential correlates of categorical perception of voice-onset time. J Acoust Soc Am 1999;106:1078–1083.
  136. Sharma A, Dorman MF: Neurophysiologic correlates of cross-language phonetic perception. J Acoust Soc Am 2000;107:2697–2703.
  137. Sharma A, Kraus N, McGee T, Carrell T, Nicol T: Acoustic versus phonetic representation of speech as reflected by the mismatch negativity event-related potential. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993;88:64–71.
  138. Sharma A, Marsh CM, Dorman MF: Relationship between N1 evoked potential morphology and the perception of voicing. J Acoust Soc Am 2000;108:3030–3035.
  139. Simos PG, Breier JI, Zouridakis G, Papanicolaou AC: Magnetic fields elicited by a tone onset time continuum in humans. Cogn Brain Res 1998a;6:285–294.
  140. Simos PG, Breier JI, Zouridakis G, Papanicolaou AC: MEG correlates of categorical-like temporal cue perception in humans. Neuroreport 1998b;9:2475–2479.
  141. Simos PG, Diehl RL, Breier JI, Molis MR, Zouridakis G, Papanicolaou AC: MEG correlates of categorical perception of a voice-onset time continuum in humans. Cogn Brain Res 1998c;7:215–219.
  142. Simpson GV, Knight RT: Multiple brain systems generating the rat auditory cortical potential. I. Characterization of the auditory cortex response. Brain Res 1993a;602:240–250.
  143. Simpson GV, Knight RT: Multiple brain systems generating the rat auditory cortical potential. II. Dissociation of auditory cortex and non-lemniscal generator systems. Brain Res 1993b;602:251–263.
  144. Steinschneider M, Schroeder CE, Arezzo JC, Vaughan HG: Speech evoked activity in primary auditory cortex: Effects of voice onset time. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1994;92:30–43.
  145. Steinschneider M, Schroeder CE, Arezzo JC, Vaughan HG: Physiologic correlates of the voice onset time boundary in primary auditory cortex (A1) of the awake monkey: Temporal response patterns. Brain Lang 1995;48:326–340.
  146. Steinschneider M, Volkov IO, Noh MD, Garell PC, Howard MA: Temporal encoding of the voice onset time phonetic parameter by field potentials recorded directly from human auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol 1999;82:2346–2357.
  147. Szymanski MD, Yund EW, Woods DL: Phonemes, intensity and attention: Differential effects on the mismatch negativity (MMN). J Acoust Soc Am 1999;106:3492–3505.
  148. Takegata R, Paavilainen P, Näätänen R, Winkler I: Independent processing of changes in auditory single features and feature conjunctions in humans as indexed by the mismatch negativity. Neurosci Lett 1999;266:109–112.

    External Resources

  149. Theunissen FE, Sen K, Doupe AJ: Spectral-temporal receptive fields of nonlinear auditory neurons obtained using natural sounds. J Neurosci 2000;20:2315–2331.

    External Resources

  150. Thivard L, Belin P, Zilbovicius M, Poline JB, Samson Y: A cortical region sensitive to auditory spectral motion. Neuroreport 2000;11:2969–2972.
  151. Tiitinen H, Sivonen P, Alku P, Virtanen J, Näätänen R: Electromagnetic recordings reveal latency differences in speech and tone processing in humans. Cogn Brain Res 1999;8:355–363.
  152. Tremblay K, Kraus N, Carrell TD, McGee T: Central auditory system plasticity: Generalization to novel stimuli following listening training. J Acoust Soc Am 1997;102:3762–3773.
  153. Vaughan HG Jr, Ritter W: The sources of auditory evoked responses recorded from the human scalp. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1970;28:360–367.

    External Resources

  154. Versnel H, Shamma SA: Spectral-ripple representation of steady-state vowels in primary auditory cortex. J Acoust Soc Am 1998;103:2502–2514.
  155. Vihla M, Lounasmaa OV, Samelin R: Cortical processing of change detection: Dissociation between natural vowels and two-frequency complex tones. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:10590–10594.
  156. Winkler I, Lehtokoski A, Alku P, Vainio M, Czigler I, Csépe V, Aaltonen O, Raimo I, Alho K, Lang H, Iivonen A, Näätänen R: Pre-attentive detection of vowel contrasts utilizes both phonetic and auditory memory representations. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 1999;7:357–369.
  157. Winkler I, Tervaniemi M, Näätänen R: Two separate codes for missing-fundamental pitch in the human auditory cortex. J Acoust Soc Am 1997;102:1072–1082.
  158. Winn P: Dictionary of Biological Psychology. London, Routledge, 2001.
  159. Wolpaw JR, Penry JK: A temporal component of the auditory evoked response. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1975;39:609–620.
  160. Woods DL, Alho K, Algazi A: Brain potential signs of feature processing during auditory selective attention. Neuroreport 1991;2:189–192.

    External Resources



Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50