Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 127, No. 4, 2002
Issue release date: April 2002

Recombinant Marker Allergens: Diagnostic Gatekeepers for the Treatment of Allergy

Kazemi-Shirazi L. · Niederberger V. · Linhart B. · Lidholm J. · Kraft D. · Valenta R.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

During the past decade an increasing number of recombinant allergens have become available, representing a significant proportion of the epitope complexity of natural allergen extracts. Component-resolved diagnosis with recombinant allergens reveals the antibody reactivity profile of allergic patients and identifies the disease-eliciting allergen molecules. This article exemplifies how recombinant allergen molecules with high cross-reactive potential can be used as marker allergens to identify allergic patients who are cross-sensitized to a variety of allergen sources. It further demonstrates how the use of allergens with a restricted distribution in a certain group of allergen sources may allow the identification of patients who have been genuinely sensitized by a particular allergen molecule. Drawing from those examples, it is suggested how diagnostic tests based on such recombinant marker allergens may be used to improve the choice and monitoring of currently available forms of specific immunotherapy.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Wills-Karp M, Santeliz J, Karp CL: The germless theory of allergic disease: Revisiting the hygiene hypothesis. Nat Rev Immunol 2001;1:69–75.
  2. Kay AB: Allergy and Allergic Diseases. Oxford, Blackwell Science, 1997.
  3. Blackley CH: Hay Fever: Its Causes, Treatment and Effective Prevention. London, Baillière, 1880.
  4. Valenta R, Lidholm J, Niederberger V, Hayek B, Kraft D, Grönlund H: The recombinant allergen-based concept of component-resolved diagnosis and immunotherapy (CRD and CRIT). Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:896–904.
  5. Valenta R, Kraft D: Recombinant allergens for diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases. Curr Opin Immunol 1995;7:751–756.

    External Resources

  6. Thomas WR, Smith W: Towards defining the full spectrum of important house dust mite allergens. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:1583–1587.

    External Resources

  7. Chapman MD, Smith AM, Vailes LD, Arruda LK, Dhanaraj V, Pomes A: Recombinant allergens for diagnosis and therapy of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:409–418.
  8. Niederberger V, Pauli G, Grönlund H, Fröschl R, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Valenta R, Spitzauer S: Recombinant birch pollen allergens (rBet v 1, rBet v 2) contain most of the IgE epitopes present in birch, alder, hornbeam, hazel, and oak pollen. A quantitative IgE inhibition study using sera from different populations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:579–591.
  9. Rodriguez R, Villalba M, Monsalve RI, Batanero E: The spectrum of olive pollen allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001;125:185–195.
  10. Niederberger V, Laffer S, Fröschl R, Kraft D, Rumpold H, Kapiotis S, Valenta R, Spitzauer S: IgE antibodies to recombinant pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Bet v 2) account for a high percentage of grass pollen-specific IgE. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:258–264.
  11. Spitzauer S: Allergy to mammalian proteins: At the borderline between foreign and self? Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;120:259–269.
  12. Crameri R: Recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergens: From the nucleotide sequences to clinical applications. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;115:99–114.
  13. King TP, Spangfort MD: Structure and biology of stinging insect venom allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;123:99–106.
  14. Lundberg M, Chen Z, Rihs HP, Wrangsjo K: Recombinant spiked allergen extract. Allergy 2001;56:794–795.
  15. Niederberger V, Stübner P, Spitzauer S, Kraft D, Valenta R, Ehrenberger K, Horak F: Skin test results but not serology reflect immediate type respiratory sensitivity: A study performed with recombinant allergen molecules. J Invest Dermatol 2001;117:848–851.

    External Resources

  16. Hiller R, Laffer S, Harwanegg C, Huber M, Schmidt WM, Twardosz A, Barletta B, Becker WM, Blaser K, Breiteneder H, Chapman M, Crameri R, Duchene M, Ferreira F, Fiebig H, Hoffman-Sommergruber K, King TP, Kleber-Janke T, Kurup VP, Leher SB, Lidholm J, Müller U, Pini C, Reese G, Scheiner O, Scheynius A, Shen HD, Spitzauer S, Suck R, Swoboda I, Thomas W, Tinghino R, van Hage-Hamsten M, Virtanen T, Kraft D, Müller MW, Valenta R: Microarrayed allergen molecules: Diagnostic gatekeepers for allergy therapy. FASEB 2002;16:414–416.
  17. Pauli G: Evolution in the understanding of cross-reactivities of respiratory allergens: The role of recombinant allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;123:183–195.
  18. Valenta R, Kraft D: Recombinant allergens; in Hansel TJ, Barnes PJ (eds): New Drugs for Allergy, Asthma and COPD. Prog Resp Res. Basel, Karger, 2001, pp 195–200.
  19. Valenta R, Vrtala S, Focke-Tejkl M, Bugajska-Schretter A, Ball T, Twardosz A, Spitzauer S, Grönlund H, Kraft D: Genetically engineered and synthetic allergen derivatives: Candidates for vaccination against type I allergy. Biol Chem 1999;380:815–824.
  20. Singh MB, de Weerd N, Bhalla PL: Genetically engineered plant allergens with reduced anaphylactic activity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;119:75–85.
  21. Valenta R, Vrtala S, Focke-Tejkl M, Twardosz A, Swoboda I, Bugajska-Schretter A, Spitzauer A, Kraft D: Synthetic and genetically engineered allergen derivatives for specific immunotherapy of type I allergy; in Zweiman B, Schwartz LB (eds): Inflammatory Mechanisms in Allergic Diseases. Clin Allergy Immunol. New York, Marcel Dekker, 2001, vol 16, pp 495–517.
  22. Van Hage-Hamsten M, Kronqvist M, Zetterström O, Johansson E, Niederberger V, Vrtala S, Grönlund H, Grönneberg R, Valenta R: Skin test evaluation of genetically engineered hypoallergenic derivatives of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. Results obtained with a mix of two recombinant Bet v 1 fragments and rBet v 1 trimer in a Swedish population before the birch pollen season. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:969–977.
  23. Pauli G, Purohit A, Oster JP, de Blay F, Vrtala S, Niederberger V, Kraft D, Valenta R: Clinical evaluation of genetically engineered hypoallergenic rBet v 1 derivatives by skin prick and intradermal testing: Results obtained in a French population. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:1076–1084.
  24. Nopp A, Haldén G, Lundahl J, Johansson E, Vrtala S, Valenta R, Grönneberg R, van Hage-Hamsten M: Genetically engineered hypoallergenic derivatives of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, induce less eosinophilic activity in skin chamber fluids collected from birch pollen allergic patients than rBet v 1 wild type. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:101–109.
  25. Arquint O, Helbing A, Crameri R, Ferreira F, Breitenbach M, Pichler WJ: Reduced in vivo allergenicity of Bet v 1d isoform, a natural component of birch pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:1239–1243.

    External Resources

  26. Wüthrich B, Schindler C, Leuenberger P, Ackermann-Liebrich U: Prevalence of atopy and pollinosis in the adult population of Switzerland (SALPADIA study). Swiss study on air pollution and lung diseases in adults. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1995;106:149–156.
  27. Breiteneder H, Ebner C: Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:27–36.
  28. Valenta R, Duchêne M, Pettenburger K, Sillaber C, Valent P, Bettelheim P, Breitenbach M, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Identification of profilin as a novel pollen allergen; IgE autoreactivity in sensitized individuals. Science 1991;253:557–560.
  29. Valenta R, Duchêne M, Ebner C, Valent P, Sillaber C, Deviller P, Ferreira F, Tejkl M, Edelmann H, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Profilins constitute a novel family of functional plant pan-allergens. J Exp Med 1992;175:377–385.
  30. Vallier P, DeChamp C, Valenta R, Vial O, Deviller P: Purification and characterization of an allergen from celery immunochemically related to an allergen present in several other plant species. Identification as a profilin. Clin Exp Allergy 1992;22:774–782.
  31. Van Ree R, Voitenko V, van Leeuwen WA, Aalberse RC: Profilin is a cross-reactive allergen in pollen and vegetable foods. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1992;98:97–104.
  32. Valenta R, Ferreira F, Grote M, Swoboda I, Vrtala S, Duchêne M, Deviller P, Meagher RB, McKinney E, Heberle-Bors E, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Identification of profilin as an actin-binding protein in higher plants. J Biol Chem 1993;268:22777–22781.
  33. Fedorov AA, Ball T, Mahoney NM, Valenta R, Almo SC: The molecular basis for allergen cross-reactivity: Crystal structure and IgE-epitope mapping of birch pollen profilin. Structure 1997;5:33–45.
  34. Van Ree R, Fernandez-Rivas M, Cuevas M, van-Wijngaarden M, Aalberse RC: Pollen-related allergy to peach and apple: An important role for profilin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:726–734.
  35. Ferreira F, Mayer P, Sperr WR, Valent P, Seiberler S, Ebner C, Liehl E, Scheiner O, Kraft D, Valenta R: Induction of IgE antibodies with predefined specificity in rhesus monkeys with recombinant birch pollen allergens, Bet v 1 and Bet v 2. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:95–103.
  36. Pauli G, Oster J, Deviller P, Heiss S, Bessot J, Susani M, Ferreira F, Kraft D, Valenta R: Skin testing with recombinant allergens rBet v 1 and rBet v 2: Diagnostic value for birch pollen and associated allergies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:1100–1109.
  37. Heiss S, Mahler V, Steiner R, Spitzauer S, Schweiger C, Kraft D, Valenta R: Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) of type I allergy with recombinant grass and tree pollen allergens by skin testing. J Invest Dermatol 1999;113:830–837.
  38. Elfman L, Svensson M, Lidholm J, Pauli G, Valenta R: Different profiles in specific IgE to rBet v 1 and rBet v 2 in patients allergic to birch pollen from six countries. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;113:249–251.

    External Resources

  39. Movérare R, Elfman L, Vesterinen E, Metso T, Haahtela T: Development of new IgE reactivities to allergenic components in pollen extracts during specific immunotherapy studied with immunoblotting and the Pharmacia CAP system. Allergy, in press.
  40. Breiteneder H, Pettenburger K, Bito A, Valenta R, Kraft D, Rumpold H, Scheiner O, Breitenbach M: The gene coding for the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, is highly homologous to a pea disease resistance response gene. EMBO J 1989;8:1935–1938.
  41. Valenta R, Duchêne M, Vrtala S, Birkner T, Ebner C, Hirschwehr R, Breitenbach M, Rumpold H, Scheiner O, Kraft D: Recombinant allergens for immunoblot diagnosis of tree pollen allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991;88:889–894.
  42. Rohac M, Birkner T, Reimitzer I, Bohle B, Steiner R, Breitner M, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Gabel F, Rumpold H: The immunological relationship of epitopes on major tree pollen allergens. Mol Immunol 1991;28:897–906.
  43. Kos T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Ferreira F, Hirschwehr R, Ahorn H, Horak F, Jäger S, Sperr WR, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Purification, characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a new major allergen from European chestnut pollen, Cas s 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993;196:1086–1092.
  44. Ebner C, Hirschwehr R, Bauer L, Breiteneder H, Valenta R, Ebner H, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Identification of allergens in fruits and vegetables: IgE cross-reactivities with the important birch pollen allergens Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 (birch profilin). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:962–969.
  45. Hirschwehr R, Valenta R, Ebner C, Ferreira F, Sperr WR, Valent P, Rohac M, Rumpold H, Scheiner O, Kraft D: Identification of common allergenic structures in hazel pollen and hazelnuts: A possible explanation for sensitivity to hazelnuts in patients allergic to tree pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90:927–936.
  46. Hoffman-Sommergruber K, O’Riordain G, Ahorn H, Ebner C, Laimer Da Camara Machado M, Puhringer H, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H: Molcular characterization of Dau c 1, the Bet v 1 homologous protein from carrot and its cross-reactivity with Bet v 1 and Api g 1. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:840–847.
  47. Breiteneder H, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, O’Riordain G, Susani M, Ahorn H, Ebner C, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Molecular characterization of Api g 1, the major allergen of celery (Apium graveolens), and its immunological and structural relationships to a group of 17 kDa tree pollen allergens. Eur J Biochem 1995;233:484–489.

    External Resources

  48. Neudecker P, Schweimer K, Nerkamp J, Scheurer S, Vieths S, Sticht H, Rösch P: Allergic cross-reactivity made visible: Solution structure of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1. Biol Chem 2001;276:22756–22763.
  49. Vanek-Krebitz M, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Laimer Da Camara Machado M, Susani M, Ebner C, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H: Cloning and sequencing of Mal d 1, the major allergen from apple (Malus domestica), and its immunological relationship to Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214:538–551.
  50. Leitner A, Jensen-Jarolim E, Grimm R, Wüthrich B, Ebner C, Scheiner O, Kraft D, Ebner C: Allergens in pepper and paprika. Immunologic investigation of the celery-birch-mugwort-spice syndrome. Allergy 1998;53:36–41.
  51. Jensen-Jarolim E, Santner B, Leitner A, Grimm R, Scheiner O, Ebner C, Breiteneder H: Bell peppers (Capsicum annum) express allergens (profilin, pathogensis-related protein P23 and Bet v 1) depending on the horticultural strain. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;116:103–109.
  52. Petersen BN, Janniche H, Munch EP, Wihl JA, Bowadt H, Ipsen H, Lowenstein H: Immunotherapy with partially purified and standardized tree pollen extracts. I. Clinical results from a three-year double-blind study of patients treated with pollen extracts either of birch or combinations of alder, birch and hazel. Allergy 1988;43:353–362.
  53. Asero R: Effects of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy on apple allergy in birch pollen-hypersensitive patients. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1368–1373.

    External Resources

  54. Valenta R, Hayek B, Seiberler S, Bugajska-Schretter A, Niederberger V, Twardosz A, Natter S, Vangelista L, Pastore A, Spitzauer S, Kraft D: Calcium-binding allergens: From plants to man. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;117:160–166.
  55. Valenta R, Twardosz A, Swoboda I, Hayek B, Spitzauer S, Kraft D: Calcium-binding proteins in type I allergy: Elicitors and vaccines; in Pochet R (ed): Calcium: The Molecular Basis of Calcium Action in Biology and Medicine. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2000, pp 365–377.
  56. Hayek B, Vangelista L, Pastore A, Sperr WR, Valent P, Vrtala S, Niederberger V, Twardosz A, Kraft D, Valenta R: Molecular and immunologic characterization of a highly cross-reactive two-EF-hand calcium-binding alder pollen allergen, Aln g 4: Structural basis for calcium-modulated IgE recognition. J Immunol 1998;161:7031–7039.

    External Resources

  57. Twardosz A, Hayek B, Seiberler S, Vangelista L, Elfman L, Grönlund H, Kraft D, Valenta R: Molecular characterization, expression in Escherichia coli and epitope analysis of a two-EF-hand calcium-binding birch pollen allergen, Bet v 4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997;239:197–204.
  58. Engel E, Richter K, Obermeyer G, Briza P, Kungl AJ, Simon B, Auer M, Ebner C, Rheinberger HJ, Breitenbach M, Ferreira F: Immunological and biological properties of Bet v 4, a novel birch pollen allergen with two-EF-hand calcium-binding domains. J Biol Chem 1997;272:28630–28637.
  59. Ledesma A, Villalba M, Rodriguez R: Molecular cloning and expression of active Ole e 3, a major allergen from olive-tree pollen and member of a novel family of calcium-binding proteins (polcalcins) involved in allergy. Eur J Biochem 1998;258:454–459.

    External Resources

  60. Hemmer W, Focke M, Wantke F, Götz M, Jarisch R, Jäger S: Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) pollen allergy in Central Europe: Specific role of pollen panallergens and the major allergen of ash pollen, Fra e 1. Allergy 2000;55:923–930.

    External Resources

  61. Suphioglu C, Ferreira F, Knox RB: Molecular cloning and immunological characterization of Cyn d 7, a novel calcium-binding allergen from Bermuda grass pollen. FEBS Lett 1997;402:167–172.

    External Resources

  62. Smith PM, Xu H, Swoboda I, Singh MB: Identification of a Ca2+ binding protein as a new Bermuda grass pollen allergen Cyn d 7: IgE cross-reactivity with oilseed rape pollen allergen Bra r 1. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;114:75–85.

    External Resources

  63. Niederberger V, Hayek B, Vrtala S, Laffer S, Twardosz A, Vangelista L, Sperr WR, Valent P, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Ehrenberger K, Valenta R, Spitzauer S: Calcium-dependent immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound form of a cross-reactive two-EF-hand timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 7. FASEB J 1999;13:843–856.

    External Resources

  64. Toriyama K, Okada T, Watanabe M, Ide T, Ashida T, Xu H, Singh MB: A cDNA clone encoding and IgE binding protein from Brassica anther has significant sequence similarity to Ca2+-binding proteins. Plant Mol Biol 1995;29:1157–1165.

    External Resources

  65. Mari A: Multiple pollen sensitization: A molecular approach to the diagnosis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001;125:57–65.
  66. Tinghino R, Twardosz A, Barletta B, Puggioni EMR, Iacovacci P, Butteroni C, Afferni C, Mari A, Hayek B, Di Felici G, Focke M, Westritschnig K, Valenta R, Pini C: Molecular, structural, and immunologic relationships between different families of recombinant calcium-binding pollen allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:314–320.
  67. Ball T, Sperr WR, Valent P, Lidholm J, Spitzauer S, Ebner C, Kraft D, Valenta R: Induction of antibody responses to new B cell epitopes indicates vaccination character of allergen immunotherapy. Eur J Immunol 1999;29:2026–2036.
  68. Esch RE: Grass pollen allergens. Clin Allergy Immunol 1999;12:103–120.
  69. Valenta R, Ball T, Vrtala S, Duchêne M, Kraft D, Scheiner O: cDNA cloning and expression of timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen profilin in Escherichia coli: Comparison with birch pollen profilin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199:106–118.
  70. Suphioglu C: What are the important allergens in grass pollen that are linked to human allergic diseases? Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:1335–1341.

    External Resources

  71. Johnson P, Marsh DG: Isoallergens from rye grass pollen. Nature 1965;206:935–937.
  72. Laffer S, Valenta R, Vrtala S, Susani M, van Ree R, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Duchêne M: cDNA cloning of the major allergen Phl p I from timothy grass (Phleum pratense); recombinant Phl p I inhibits IgE-binding to group I allergens from eight different grass species. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:689–698.
  73. Laffer S, Spitzauer S, Susani M, Pairleitner H, Schweiger C, Grönlund H, Menz G, Pauli G, Ishii T, Nolte H, Ebner C, Sehon AH, Kraft D, Eichler HG, Valenta R: Comparison of recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens with natural extract for diagnosis of grass pollen allergy in different populations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:652–658.
  74. Ansari AA, Shenbagamurthi P, Marsh DG: Complete primary structure of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II. J Biol Chem 1989;265:11181–11185.
  75. Ong EK, Griffth IJ, Knox RB, Singh MB: Cloning of a cDNA encoding a group V (group IX) allergen isoform from rye grass pollen that demonstrates specific antigenic immunoreactivity. Gene 1993;134:235–240.
  76. Silvanovich A, Astwood J, Zhang L, Olsen E, Kisil F, Sehon A, Mohapatra S, Hill R: Nucleotide sequence analysis of three cDNAs coding for Poa p IX isoallergens of Kentucky bluegrass pollen. J Biol Chem 1991;266:1204–1210.

    External Resources

  77. Vrtala S, Sperr WR, Reimitzer I, van Ree R, Laffer S, Müller WD, Valent P, Lechner K, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Valenta R: cDNA cloning of a major allergen from timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen: Characterization of the recombinant Phl p V allergen. J Immunol 1993;151:4773–4781.

    External Resources

  78. Bufe A, Becker WM, Schramm G, Petersen A, Mamat U, Schlaak M: Major allergen Phl p Va (timothy grass) bears at least two different IgE-reactive epitopes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:173–181.
  79. Flicker S, Vrtala S, Steinberger P, Vangelista L, Bufe A, Petersen A, Ghannadan M, Sperr WR, Valent P, Norderhaug L, Bohle B, Stockinger H, Suphioglu C, Ong EK, Kraft D, Valenta R: A human monoclonal IgE antibody defines a highly allergenic fragment of the major timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 5: Molecular, immunological and structural characterization of the epitope-containing domain. J Immunol 2000;165:3849–3859.

    External Resources

  80. Petersen A, Bufe A, Schlaak M, Becker M: Characterization of the allergen group VI in timothy grass pollen (Phl p 6). Immunological and biochemical studies. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1995;108:49–54.

    External Resources

  81. Petersen A, Bufe A, Schramm G, Schlaak M, Becker WM: Characterization of the allergen group VI in timothy grass pollen (Phl p 6). II. cDNA cloning of Phl p 6 and structural comparison to grass group V. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1995;108:55–59.

    External Resources

  82. Vrtala S, Fischer S, Grote M, Vangelista L, Pastore A, Sperr WR, Valent P, Reichelt R, Kraft D, Valenta R: Molecular, immunological, and structural characterization of Phl p 6, a major allergen and P-particle-associated protein from timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen. J Immunol 1999;163:5489–5496.

    External Resources



Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50