Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 53, No. 2, 2002
Issue release date: May 2002
Hum Hered 2002;53:68–78
(DOI:10.1159/000057985)

Y-Chromosomal Diversity Suggests that Baltic Males Share Common Finno-Ugric-Speaking Forefathers

Laitinen V.a,b · Lahermo P.c · Sistonen P.d · Savontaus M.-L.a,b
aDepartment of Medical Genetics, Biomedical Institute, University of Turku, Turku, bDepartment of Genetics, University of Turku, Turku, cFinnish Genome Center, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, and dFinnish Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Helsinki, Finland
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Objective: To elucidate the genetic relationships between Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian men by studying Y-chromosomal variation in these people. Methods: The allelic status of five deep-rooted marker loci (YAP, Tat, M9, 92R7 and SRY-1532) was determined for 346 Baltic males. On the basis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes, Y chromosomes were divided into six haplogroups, and the Baltic haplogroup distribution compared with that in 7 European reference populations. Haplogroup frequencies, diversities and genetic distances (FST values) were calculated. The relationships between populations were further illustrated using Mantel test, neighbor-joining tree and principal-component map. Results: We found the Indo-European-speaking Latvians and Lithuanians to be genetically very similar to the Finno-Ugric-speaking Estonians. When compared to the reference populations, Baltic males were most closely related to the Finno-Ugric-speaking Mari, followed by their Finnish and Slavonic neighbors. Conclusions: The genetic similarity existing between Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian men suggests that they originate from the same male founder population. Since the Baltic Y-chromosomal haplogroup distribution more closely resembles that of Finno-Ugric than Indo-European-speaking populations, we propose a hypothesis that Baltic males share a common Finno-Ugric ancestry.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Y chromosome
  • SNPs
  • Haplogroup
  • Baltic region
  • Finno-Ugric

 goto top of outline Abstract

Objective: To elucidate the genetic relationships between Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian men by studying Y-chromosomal variation in these people. Methods: The allelic status of five deep-rooted marker loci (YAP, Tat, M9, 92R7 and SRY-1532) was determined for 346 Baltic males. On the basis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes, Y chromosomes were divided into six haplogroups, and the Baltic haplogroup distribution compared with that in 7 European reference populations. Haplogroup frequencies, diversities and genetic distances (FST values) were calculated. The relationships between populations were further illustrated using Mantel test, neighbor-joining tree and principal-component map. Results: We found the Indo-European-speaking Latvians and Lithuanians to be genetically very similar to the Finno-Ugric-speaking Estonians. When compared to the reference populations, Baltic males were most closely related to the Finno-Ugric-speaking Mari, followed by their Finnish and Slavonic neighbors. Conclusions: The genetic similarity existing between Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian men suggests that they originate from the same male founder population. Since the Baltic Y-chromosomal haplogroup distribution more closely resembles that of Finno-Ugric than Indo-European-speaking populations, we propose a hypothesis that Baltic males share a common Finno-Ugric ancestry.

Copyright © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Cann RL, Stoneking M, Wilson AC: Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 1987;325:31–36.
  2. Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA, Jin L, Passarino G, Yang WH, Kauffman E, Bonné-Tamir B, Bertranpetit J, Francalacci P, Ibrahim M, Jenkins T, Kidd JR, Mehdi SQ, Seielstad MT, Wells RS, Piazza A, Davis RW, Feldman MW, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Oefner PJ: Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations. Nat Genet 2000;26:358–361.
  3. Nuñez M: Uusi katsaus Suomen asuttamismalliin; in Julku K (ed): Itämerensuomi – eurooppalainen maa. Jyväskylä, Atena Kustannus Oy, 1997, pp 47–62.
  4. Alenius K: Viron, Latvian ja Liettuan historia. Jyväskylä, Atena Kustannus Oy, 2000.
  5. Niskanen M: Itämerensuomalaisten alkuperä fyysisen antropologian näkökulmasta; in Julku K (ed): Itämerensuomi – eurooppalainen maa. Jyväskylä, Atena Kustannus Oy, 1997, pp 104–120.
  6. Cesnys G: Anthropological roots of Lithuanians. Science, Arts & Lithuania 1991;1:4–10.
  7. Niitemaa V, Hovi K: Baltian historia, ed 2, rev. Helsinki, Kustannusosakeyhtiö Tammi, 1991.
  8. Beckman L, Sikström C, Mikelsaar A-V, Krumina A, Ambrasiene D, Kucinskas V, Beckman G: Transferrin variants as markers of migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. Hum Hered 1998;48:185–191.
  9. Sajantila A, Lahermo P, Anttinen T, Lukka M, Sistonen P, Savontaus M-L, Aula P, Beckman L, Tranebjaerg L, Gedde-Dahl T, Issel-Tarver L, DiRienzo A, Pääbo S: Genes and languages in Europe: An analysis of mitochondrial lineages. Genome Res 1995;5:42–52.
  10. Sistonen P, Virtaranta-Knowles K, Denisova R, Kucinskas V, Ambrasiene D, Beckman L: The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture. Hum Hered 1999;49:154–158.
  11. Heapost L: A population genetic characterization of Estonians. Anthrop Anz 2000;58:137–154.

    External Resources

  12. Lahermo P, Savontaus M-L, Sistonen P, Béres J, de Knijff P, Aula P, Sajantila A: Y chromosomal polymorphisms reveal founding lineages in the Finns and the Saami. Eur J Hum Genet 1999;7:447–458.
  13. Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, Adojaan M, Alavantic D, Amorim A, Amos W, Armenteros M, Arroyo E, Barbujani G, Beckman G, Beckman L, Bertranpetit J, Bosch E, Bradley DG, Brede G, Cooper G, Côrte-Real HBSM, de Knijff P, Decorte R, Dubrova YE, Evgrafov O, Gilissen A, Glisic S, Gölge M, Hill EW, Jeziorowska A, Kalaydjieva L, Kayser M, Kivisild T, Kravchenko SA, Krumina A, Kucinskas V, Lavinha J, Livshits LA, Malaspina P, Maria S, McElreavey K, Meitinger TA, Mikelsaar A-V, Mitchell RJ, Nafa K, Nicholson J, Norby S, Pandya A, Parik J, Patsalis PC, Pereira L, Peterlin B, Pielberg G, Prata MJ, Previderé C, Roewer L, Rootsi S, Rubinsztein DC, Saillard J, Santos FR, Stefanescu G, Sykes BC, Tolun A, Villems R, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA: Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:1526–1543.
  14. Zerjal T, Beckman L, Beckman G, Mikelsaar A-V, Krumina A, Kucinskas V, Hurles ME, Tyler-Smith C: Geographical, linguistic, and cultural influences on genetic diversity: Y-chromosomal distribution in Northern European populations. Mol Biol Evol 2001;18:1077–1087.

    External Resources

  15. Kucinskas V, Radikas J, Rasmuson M: Genetic diversity in the Lithuanian rural population as illustrated by variation in the ABO and Rh(D) blood groups. Hum Hered 1994;44:344–349.
  16. Kucinskas V: Human mitochondrial DNA variation in Lithuania. Anthrop Anz 1994;52:289–295.
  17. Hurles ME, Irven C, Nicholson J, Taylor PG, Santos FR, Loughlin J, Jobling MA, Sykes BC: European Y-chromosomal lineages in Polynesians: A contrast to the population structure revealed by mtDNA. Am J Hum Genet 1998;63:1793–1806.
  18. Helgason A, Sigurdardóttir S, Nicholson J, Sykes B, Hill EW, Bradley DG, Bosnes V, Gulcher JR, Ward R, Stefánsson K: Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic ancestry in the male settlers of Iceland. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:697–717.
  19. Hammer MF: A recent insertion of an Alu element on the Y chromosome is a useful marker for human population studies. Mol Biol Evol 1994;11:749–761.

    External Resources

  20. Hammer MF, Horai S: Y chromosomal DNA variation and the peopling of Japan. Am J Hum Genet 1995;56:951–962.
  21. Zerjal T, Dashnyam B, Pandya A, Kayser M, Roewer L, Santos FR, Schiefenhövel W, Fretwell N, Jobling MA, Harihara S, Shimizu K, Semjidmaa D, Sajantila A, Salo P, Crawford MH, Ginter EK, Evgrafov OV, Tyler-Smith C: Genetic relationships of Asians and northern Europeans, revealed by Y-chromosomal DNA analysis. Am J Hum Genet 1997;60:1174–1183.
  22. Underhill PA, Jin L, Lin AA, Mehdi SQ, Jenkins T, Vollrath D, Davis RW, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Oefner PJ: Detection of numerous Y chromosome biallelic polymorphisms by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Genome Res 1997;7:996–1005.
  23. Mathias N, Bayés M, Tyler-Smith C: Highly informative compound haplotypes for the human Y chromosome. Hum Mol Genet 1994;3:115–123.

    External Resources

  24. Hurles ME, Veitia R, Arroyo E, Armenteros M, Bertranpetit J, Pérez-Lezaun A, Bosch E, Shlumukova M, Cambon-Thomsen A, McElreavey K, López de Munain A, Röhl A, Wilson IJ, Singh L, Pandya A, Santos FR, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA: Recent male-mediated gene flow over a linguistic barrier in Iberia, suggested by analysis of a Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet 1999;65:1437–1448.
  25. Whitfield LS, Sulston JE, Goodfellow PN: Sequence variation of the human Y chromosome. Nature 1995;378:379–380.
  26. Santos FR, Pandya A, Tyler-Smith C, Pena SDJ, Schanfield M, Leonard WR, Osipova L, Crawford MH, Mitchell RJ: The central Siberian origin for native American Y chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet 1999;64:619–628.
  27. Jobling MA, Pandya A, Tyler-Smith C: The Y chromosome in forensic analysis and paternity testing. Int J Legal Med 1997;110:118–124.
  28. Tyler-Smith C: Y-chromosomal DNA markers; in Papiha S, Deka R, Chakraborty R (eds): Genomic diversity: Applications in human population genetics. New York, Plenum Press, 1999, pp 65–73.
  29. Bandelt H-J, Forster P, Sykes BC, Richards MB: Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks. Genetics 1995;141:743–753.

    External Resources

  30. Bandelt H-J, Macaulay V, Richards M: Median networks: Speedy construction and greedy reduction, one simulation, and two case studies from human mtDNA. Mol Phyl Evol 2000;16:8–28.

    External Resources

  31. Nei M: Molecular evolutionary genetics. New York, Columbia University Press, 1987.
  32. Schneider S, Roessli D, Excoffier L: ARLEQUIN: A software for population genetic data analysis. Ver 2.0. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva, 2000.
  33. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozzi P, Piazza A: The history and geography of human genes. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1994.
  34. Sammon JW Jr: A nonlinear mapping for data structure analysis. IEEE Trans Comput 1969;5:401–409.
  35. Lewis PO, Zaykin D: Genetic Data Analysis: Computer program for the analysis of allelic data. Ver 1.0 (d16c), 2001. Free program distributed by the authors over the Internet from http://lewis.eeb.uconn.edu/lewishome/software.html.
  36. Karafet TM, Zegura SL, Posukh O, Osipova L, Bergen A, Long J, Goldman D, Klitz W, Harihara S, de Knijff P, Wiebe V, Griffiths RC, Templeton AR, Hammer MF: Ancestral Asian source(s) of New World Y-chromosome founder haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 1999;64:817–831.
  37. de Knijff P: Messages through bottlenecks: On the combined use of slow and fast evolving polymorphic markers on the human Y chromosome. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:1055–1061.

    External Resources

  38. Zerjal T, Pandya A, Santos FR, Adhikari R, Tarazona E, Kayser M, Evgrafov O, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Destro-Bisol G, Thomas MG, Qamar R, Mehdi SQ, Rosser ZH, Hurles ME, Jobling MA, Tyler-Smith C: The use of Y-chromosomal DNA variation to investigate population history: Recent male spread in Asia and Europe; in Papiha S, Deka R, Chakraborty R (eds): Genomic diversity: Applications in human population genetics. New York, Plenum Press, 1999, pp 91–101.
  39. Hammer MF, Karafet T, Rasanayagam A, Wood ET, Altheide TK, Jenkins T, Griffiths RC, Templeton AR, Zegura SL: Out of Africa and back again: Nested cladistic analysis of human Y chromosome variation. Mol Biol Evol 1998;15:427–441.

    External Resources

  40. Raitio M, Lindroos K, Laukkanen M, Pastinen T, Sistonen P, Sajantila A, Syvänen A-C: Y-chromosomal SNPs in Finno-Ugric-speaking populations analyzed by minisequencing on microarrays. Genome Res 2001;11:471–482.
  41. Mela M: Latvian historia, ed 3. Helsinki, Yliopistopaino, 1997.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Virpi Laitinen
Department of Medical Genetics, Biomedical Institute, University of Turku
Kiinamyllynkatu 10
FIN–20520 Turku (Finland)
Tel. +358 2 333 7456, Fax +358 2 333 7300, E-Mail virlaiti@utu.fi


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: Received: August 24, 2001
Revision received: January 10, 2002
Accepted: January 14, 2002
Number of Print Pages : 11
Number of Figures : 5, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 41


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Human Heredity (International Journal of Human and Medical Genetics)
Founded 1950 as Acta Genetica et Statistica Medica by Gunnar Dahlberg; Continued by M. Hauge (1965–1983)

Vol. 53, No. 2, Year 2002 (Cover Date: Released May 2002)

Journal Editor: J. Ott, New York, N.Y.
ISSN: 0001–5652 (print), 1423–0062 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.ch/journals/hhe


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Objective: To elucidate the genetic relationships between Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian men by studying Y-chromosomal variation in these people. Methods: The allelic status of five deep-rooted marker loci (YAP, Tat, M9, 92R7 and SRY-1532) was determined for 346 Baltic males. On the basis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes, Y chromosomes were divided into six haplogroups, and the Baltic haplogroup distribution compared with that in 7 European reference populations. Haplogroup frequencies, diversities and genetic distances (FST values) were calculated. The relationships between populations were further illustrated using Mantel test, neighbor-joining tree and principal-component map. Results: We found the Indo-European-speaking Latvians and Lithuanians to be genetically very similar to the Finno-Ugric-speaking Estonians. When compared to the reference populations, Baltic males were most closely related to the Finno-Ugric-speaking Mari, followed by their Finnish and Slavonic neighbors. Conclusions: The genetic similarity existing between Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian men suggests that they originate from the same male founder population. Since the Baltic Y-chromosomal haplogroup distribution more closely resembles that of Finno-Ugric than Indo-European-speaking populations, we propose a hypothesis that Baltic males share a common Finno-Ugric ancestry.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Virpi Laitinen
Department of Medical Genetics, Biomedical Institute, University of Turku
Kiinamyllynkatu 10
FIN–20520 Turku (Finland)
Tel. +358 2 333 7456, Fax +358 2 333 7300, E-Mail virlaiti@utu.fi


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: Received: August 24, 2001
Revision received: January 10, 2002
Accepted: January 14, 2002
Number of Print Pages : 11
Number of Figures : 5, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 41


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Human Heredity (International Journal of Human and Medical Genetics)
Founded 1950 as Acta Genetica et Statistica Medica by Gunnar Dahlberg; Continued by M. Hauge (1965–1983)

Vol. 53, No. 2, Year 2002 (Cover Date: Released May 2002)

Journal Editor: J. Ott, New York, N.Y.
ISSN: 0001–5652 (print), 1423–0062 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.ch/journals/hhe


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Cann RL, Stoneking M, Wilson AC: Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 1987;325:31–36.
  2. Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA, Jin L, Passarino G, Yang WH, Kauffman E, Bonné-Tamir B, Bertranpetit J, Francalacci P, Ibrahim M, Jenkins T, Kidd JR, Mehdi SQ, Seielstad MT, Wells RS, Piazza A, Davis RW, Feldman MW, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Oefner PJ: Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations. Nat Genet 2000;26:358–361.
  3. Nuñez M: Uusi katsaus Suomen asuttamismalliin; in Julku K (ed): Itämerensuomi – eurooppalainen maa. Jyväskylä, Atena Kustannus Oy, 1997, pp 47–62.
  4. Alenius K: Viron, Latvian ja Liettuan historia. Jyväskylä, Atena Kustannus Oy, 2000.
  5. Niskanen M: Itämerensuomalaisten alkuperä fyysisen antropologian näkökulmasta; in Julku K (ed): Itämerensuomi – eurooppalainen maa. Jyväskylä, Atena Kustannus Oy, 1997, pp 104–120.
  6. Cesnys G: Anthropological roots of Lithuanians. Science, Arts & Lithuania 1991;1:4–10.
  7. Niitemaa V, Hovi K: Baltian historia, ed 2, rev. Helsinki, Kustannusosakeyhtiö Tammi, 1991.
  8. Beckman L, Sikström C, Mikelsaar A-V, Krumina A, Ambrasiene D, Kucinskas V, Beckman G: Transferrin variants as markers of migrations and admixture between populations in the Baltic Sea region. Hum Hered 1998;48:185–191.
  9. Sajantila A, Lahermo P, Anttinen T, Lukka M, Sistonen P, Savontaus M-L, Aula P, Beckman L, Tranebjaerg L, Gedde-Dahl T, Issel-Tarver L, DiRienzo A, Pääbo S: Genes and languages in Europe: An analysis of mitochondrial lineages. Genome Res 1995;5:42–52.
  10. Sistonen P, Virtaranta-Knowles K, Denisova R, Kucinskas V, Ambrasiene D, Beckman L: The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture. Hum Hered 1999;49:154–158.
  11. Heapost L: A population genetic characterization of Estonians. Anthrop Anz 2000;58:137–154.

    External Resources

  12. Lahermo P, Savontaus M-L, Sistonen P, Béres J, de Knijff P, Aula P, Sajantila A: Y chromosomal polymorphisms reveal founding lineages in the Finns and the Saami. Eur J Hum Genet 1999;7:447–458.
  13. Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, Adojaan M, Alavantic D, Amorim A, Amos W, Armenteros M, Arroyo E, Barbujani G, Beckman G, Beckman L, Bertranpetit J, Bosch E, Bradley DG, Brede G, Cooper G, Côrte-Real HBSM, de Knijff P, Decorte R, Dubrova YE, Evgrafov O, Gilissen A, Glisic S, Gölge M, Hill EW, Jeziorowska A, Kalaydjieva L, Kayser M, Kivisild T, Kravchenko SA, Krumina A, Kucinskas V, Lavinha J, Livshits LA, Malaspina P, Maria S, McElreavey K, Meitinger TA, Mikelsaar A-V, Mitchell RJ, Nafa K, Nicholson J, Norby S, Pandya A, Parik J, Patsalis PC, Pereira L, Peterlin B, Pielberg G, Prata MJ, Previderé C, Roewer L, Rootsi S, Rubinsztein DC, Saillard J, Santos FR, Stefanescu G, Sykes BC, Tolun A, Villems R, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA: Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:1526–1543.
  14. Zerjal T, Beckman L, Beckman G, Mikelsaar A-V, Krumina A, Kucinskas V, Hurles ME, Tyler-Smith C: Geographical, linguistic, and cultural influences on genetic diversity: Y-chromosomal distribution in Northern European populations. Mol Biol Evol 2001;18:1077–1087.

    External Resources

  15. Kucinskas V, Radikas J, Rasmuson M: Genetic diversity in the Lithuanian rural population as illustrated by variation in the ABO and Rh(D) blood groups. Hum Hered 1994;44:344–349.
  16. Kucinskas V: Human mitochondrial DNA variation in Lithuania. Anthrop Anz 1994;52:289–295.
  17. Hurles ME, Irven C, Nicholson J, Taylor PG, Santos FR, Loughlin J, Jobling MA, Sykes BC: European Y-chromosomal lineages in Polynesians: A contrast to the population structure revealed by mtDNA. Am J Hum Genet 1998;63:1793–1806.
  18. Helgason A, Sigurdardóttir S, Nicholson J, Sykes B, Hill EW, Bradley DG, Bosnes V, Gulcher JR, Ward R, Stefánsson K: Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic ancestry in the male settlers of Iceland. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:697–717.
  19. Hammer MF: A recent insertion of an Alu element on the Y chromosome is a useful marker for human population studies. Mol Biol Evol 1994;11:749–761.

    External Resources

  20. Hammer MF, Horai S: Y chromosomal DNA variation and the peopling of Japan. Am J Hum Genet 1995;56:951–962.
  21. Zerjal T, Dashnyam B, Pandya A, Kayser M, Roewer L, Santos FR, Schiefenhövel W, Fretwell N, Jobling MA, Harihara S, Shimizu K, Semjidmaa D, Sajantila A, Salo P, Crawford MH, Ginter EK, Evgrafov OV, Tyler-Smith C: Genetic relationships of Asians and northern Europeans, revealed by Y-chromosomal DNA analysis. Am J Hum Genet 1997;60:1174–1183.
  22. Underhill PA, Jin L, Lin AA, Mehdi SQ, Jenkins T, Vollrath D, Davis RW, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Oefner PJ: Detection of numerous Y chromosome biallelic polymorphisms by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Genome Res 1997;7:996–1005.
  23. Mathias N, Bayés M, Tyler-Smith C: Highly informative compound haplotypes for the human Y chromosome. Hum Mol Genet 1994;3:115–123.

    External Resources

  24. Hurles ME, Veitia R, Arroyo E, Armenteros M, Bertranpetit J, Pérez-Lezaun A, Bosch E, Shlumukova M, Cambon-Thomsen A, McElreavey K, López de Munain A, Röhl A, Wilson IJ, Singh L, Pandya A, Santos FR, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA: Recent male-mediated gene flow over a linguistic barrier in Iberia, suggested by analysis of a Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet 1999;65:1437–1448.
  25. Whitfield LS, Sulston JE, Goodfellow PN: Sequence variation of the human Y chromosome. Nature 1995;378:379–380.
  26. Santos FR, Pandya A, Tyler-Smith C, Pena SDJ, Schanfield M, Leonard WR, Osipova L, Crawford MH, Mitchell RJ: The central Siberian origin for native American Y chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet 1999;64:619–628.
  27. Jobling MA, Pandya A, Tyler-Smith C: The Y chromosome in forensic analysis and paternity testing. Int J Legal Med 1997;110:118–124.
  28. Tyler-Smith C: Y-chromosomal DNA markers; in Papiha S, Deka R, Chakraborty R (eds): Genomic diversity: Applications in human population genetics. New York, Plenum Press, 1999, pp 65–73.
  29. Bandelt H-J, Forster P, Sykes BC, Richards MB: Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks. Genetics 1995;141:743–753.

    External Resources

  30. Bandelt H-J, Macaulay V, Richards M: Median networks: Speedy construction and greedy reduction, one simulation, and two case studies from human mtDNA. Mol Phyl Evol 2000;16:8–28.

    External Resources

  31. Nei M: Molecular evolutionary genetics. New York, Columbia University Press, 1987.
  32. Schneider S, Roessli D, Excoffier L: ARLEQUIN: A software for population genetic data analysis. Ver 2.0. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva, 2000.
  33. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozzi P, Piazza A: The history and geography of human genes. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1994.
  34. Sammon JW Jr: A nonlinear mapping for data structure analysis. IEEE Trans Comput 1969;5:401–409.
  35. Lewis PO, Zaykin D: Genetic Data Analysis: Computer program for the analysis of allelic data. Ver 1.0 (d16c), 2001. Free program distributed by the authors over the Internet from http://lewis.eeb.uconn.edu/lewishome/software.html.
  36. Karafet TM, Zegura SL, Posukh O, Osipova L, Bergen A, Long J, Goldman D, Klitz W, Harihara S, de Knijff P, Wiebe V, Griffiths RC, Templeton AR, Hammer MF: Ancestral Asian source(s) of New World Y-chromosome founder haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 1999;64:817–831.
  37. de Knijff P: Messages through bottlenecks: On the combined use of slow and fast evolving polymorphic markers on the human Y chromosome. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:1055–1061.

    External Resources

  38. Zerjal T, Pandya A, Santos FR, Adhikari R, Tarazona E, Kayser M, Evgrafov O, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Destro-Bisol G, Thomas MG, Qamar R, Mehdi SQ, Rosser ZH, Hurles ME, Jobling MA, Tyler-Smith C: The use of Y-chromosomal DNA variation to investigate population history: Recent male spread in Asia and Europe; in Papiha S, Deka R, Chakraborty R (eds): Genomic diversity: Applications in human population genetics. New York, Plenum Press, 1999, pp 91–101.
  39. Hammer MF, Karafet T, Rasanayagam A, Wood ET, Altheide TK, Jenkins T, Griffiths RC, Templeton AR, Zegura SL: Out of Africa and back again: Nested cladistic analysis of human Y chromosome variation. Mol Biol Evol 1998;15:427–441.

    External Resources

  40. Raitio M, Lindroos K, Laukkanen M, Pastinen T, Sistonen P, Sajantila A, Syvänen A-C: Y-chromosomal SNPs in Finno-Ugric-speaking populations analyzed by minisequencing on microarrays. Genome Res 2001;11:471–482.
  41. Mela M: Latvian historia, ed 3. Helsinki, Yliopistopaino, 1997.