Brucellosis, which affects the genitourinary system in rate of 2–20%, is a multiorgan infectious disease. Twelve patients were diagnosed as having brucellar orchitis serologically, clinically and ultrasonographically. In 2 patients, Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood cultures. All the patients were working in cattle dealing. They were treated with 600 mg/day rifampicin plus 200 mg/day doxycycline for 6 weeks and followed up during 1 year. They recovered clinically within 3 weeks. Although they did not have any symptoms or findings, in 4 patients, serological titers did not return to normal after 6 weeks. In 2 of these patients, relapse was seen in the 6th and 8th months, respectively. These 2 patients recovered with 1 g/day ciprofloxacin plus 2 g/day tetracycline for 6 weeks. Relapse did not occur again. Conclusively, brucellosis must be considered as a cause of orchitis in especially endemic regions where cattle dealing is widespread. The patients must be followed for relapse during at least 1 year.
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