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Vol. 12, No. 5, 1999
Issue release date: September–October 1999
Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 1999;12:247–256
(DOI:10.1159/000066249)

Penetration of Titanium Dioxide Microparticles in a Sunscreen Formulation into the Horny Layer and the Follicular Orifice

Lademann J. · Weigmann H.-J. · Rickmeyer C. · Barthelmes H. · Schaefer H. · Mueller G. · Sterry W.
aDermatological Clinic, Medical Faculty Charité, Humboldt University Berlin, bLaser and Medicine Technology GmbH Berlin, Germany; cL’Oréal, Paris, France

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Abstract

Coated titanium dioxide (TiO2) microparticles are commonly used as UV filter substances in commercial sunscreen products. The penetration of these microparticles into the horny layer and the orifice of the hair follicle was investigated. The distribution of the microparticles in the horny layer was analyzed using the method of tape stripping in combination with spectroscopic measurements. Deeper layers of the stratum corneum were devoid of TiO2 even after repetitive application of sunscreen preparation when analyzing interfollicular areas. Only in the areas of the pilosebaceous orifices could microparticles be identified. The penetration of TiO2 was investigated in histological skin sections. A biopsy was taken from a skin area from which the horny layer had been removed by tape stripping. In isolated areas, a penetration of coated TiO2 into the open part of the follicle was observed. The amount of TiO2 found in a given follicle was less than 1% of the applied total amount of sunscreens. A penetration of microparticles into viable skin tissue could not be detected.



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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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References

  1. Schaefer H, Redelmeier TE: In vitro approaches for predicting percutaneous absorption; in Skin Barrier – Principles of Percutaneous Absorption. Basel, Karger, 1996, pp 146–148.
  2. Mattin E, Neelissen-Subnel MT, De-Haan FH, Bodde HE: A critical comparison of methods to quantify stratum corneum removed by tape stripping. Skin Pharmacol 1996;9:69–77.
  3. Rougier A, Lotte C: Preditive approaches I; in Shah VP, Maibach HI (eds): The Tape Stripping in Topical Drug Bioavailability, Bioequivalence and Penetration. New York, Plenum Publishing, 1998, pp 163–183.
  4. Weigmann H-J, Lademann J, Meffert H, Sterry W: Influence of sunscreen on the spectral energy distribution of ultraviolet radiation in human skin; in Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K, Stuecker M (eds): Skin Cancer and UV Radiation. Berlin, Springer, 1997, pp 357–362.
  5. Weigmann H-J, Lademann J, Meffert H, Schaefer H, Sterry W: Determination of the horny layer profile by tape stripping in combination with optical spectroscopy in the visible range as a prerequisite to quantify percutaneous absorption. Skin Pharmacol 1999;1–2:34–45.
  6. Tan MH, Commens CA, Burnett L, Snitch PJ: A pilot study on the percutaneous absorption of microfine TiO2 from sunscreens. Australas J Dermatol 1996;37:185–187.

    External Resources

  7. Illel B, Schaefer H, Wepierre J, Doucet O: Follicles play an important role in percutaneous absorption. J Pharm Sci 1991;80:424–427.
  8. Meidan VM, Docker M, Walmaley AD, Irwin WJ: Low intensity ultrasound as a probe to elicit the relative follicular contribution to total transdermal absorption. Pharm Res 1998;15:85–92.
  9. Hisoire G, Bucks D: An unexpected finding in percutaneous absorption observed between haired and hairless guinea pig skin. J Pharm Sci 1997;86:398–400.


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