Objective: To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Methods: Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of <50% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) and/or 2 or more micronutrients of <50% of RDA were considered to be at nutritional risk. Results: Prior to the USBP, 33% of all study children were classified as being at nutritional risk. Children who were at nutritional risk had significantly poorer attendance, punctuality, and grades at school, more behavior problems, and were less likely to eat breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Conclusion: Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger.
© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
- School breakfast
- Low-income children
- Psychosocial functioning
- Dietary intake
- Bickel G, Carlson S, Nord M: Household Food Security in the United States 1995–1998; Advanced Report. Alexandria/Va, Food and Nutrition Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1999. Available at WWW.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/FSP/FILES/foodsec98.pdf.
- Kleinman RE, Murphy JM, Little M, Pagano M, Wehler CA, Regal K, Jellinek MS: Hunger in children in the United States: Potential behavioral and emotional correlates. Pediatrics 1998;101:100–111.
- Murphy JM, Wehler CA, Pagano ME, Little M, Kleinman RE, Jellinek MS: The relationship between hunger and psychosocial functioning in low income American Children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1998;37:163–170.
- Alaimo K, Olson CM, Frongillo EA, Briefel RR: Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school-aged children. Am J Public Health 2001;91:781–786.
- Murphy JM, Pagano ME, Nachmani J, Sperling P, Kane S, Kleinman RE: The relationship of school breakfast to psychosocial and academic functioning: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in an inner-city school sample. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:899–907.
- Friedman BJ, Hurd-Crixell SL: Nutrient intake of children eating school breakfast. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:219–221.
- Nicklas TA, O’Neil CE, Berenson GS: Nutrient contribution of breakfast, secular trends, and the role of ready-to-eat cereals: A review of data from the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:S757–S763.
- Nicklas TA, Bao W, Berenson GS: Nutrient contribution of the breakfast meal classified by source in 10-year-old children: Home versus school. School Food Service Research Review. 1993;17:125–132.
- Sampson AE, Dixit S, Meyers AF, Houser R Jr: The nutritional impact of breakfast consumption on the diets of inner-city African-American elementary school children. J Natl Med Assoc 1995;87:195–202.
- Farris RP, Nicklas TA: Characterizing children’s eating behavior; in Suskind RM, Suskind LL (eds): Textbook of Pediatric Nutrition, ed 2. New York, Raven Press, 1993, pp 505–516.
- Nicklas TA, Forcier JE, Webber LS, Berenson GS: School lunch assessment as part of a 24-hour dietary recall for children. J Am Diet Assoc 1991;91:711–713.
- Food and Nutrition Board: Recommended Dietary Allowances, ed 10. Washington, National Academy of Sciences, 1989.
- Gong EJ, Heald FP: Diet, nutrition, and adolescence; in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1994.
- Serra-Majem L, Ribas L, Pérez-Rodrigo C, García-Closas R, Peña-Quintana L, Aranceta J: Determinants of nutrient intake among children and adolescents: Results from the enKid Study. Ann Nutr Metab 2002;46(suppl 1):31–38.
- Wehler CA, Scott RI, Anderson JJ: The Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project: A model of domestic hunger – demonstration project in Seattle, Washington. J Nutr Educ 1992;24:29S–35S.
- Bickel G, Andrews M, Klein B: Measuring food security in the United States: A supplement to the CPS; in Hall D, Stavrianos M (eds): Nutrition and Food Security in the Food Stamp Program. Alexandria/Va, US Department of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Service, 1996, pp 91–111.
- Jellinek MS, Murphy JM, Little M, Pagano ME, Comer DM, Kelleher KJ: Use of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist to screen for psychosocial problems in pediatric primary care: A national feasibility study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:254–260.
- Pagano ME, Cassidy LJ, Little M, Murphy JM, Jellinek MS: Identifying psychosocial dysfunction in school-age children: The Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a self-report measure. Psychol Schools 2000;37:91–106.
- Gall G, Pagano ME, Desmond SM, Perrin JM, Murphy JM: Utility of psychosocial screening at a school-based health center. J School Health 2000;70:292–298.
- Briefel R, Murphy M, Kung S, Devaney B: Universal-free school breakfast program evaluation design project. Review of the literature on breakfast and learning. Final report. Princeton/NJ, Mathematica Policy Research, USDA Contract No 53-3198-7-006, Dec 1999.
J. Michael Murphy, EdD
Massachusetts General Hospital
Child Psychiatry Service, 15 Parkman Street
WAC 725, Boston, MA 02114 (USA)
Tel. +1 617 724 3163, Fax +1 617 726 9219, E-Mail Mmurphy6@Partners.org
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 2, Number of References : 20
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism (European Journal of Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases and Dietetics)
Founded 1959 as ’Nutritio et Dieta‘ by E. Azerad, H. Kapp and J. Trémolières
Official Journal of the Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS)
Vol. 46, No. Suppl. 1, Year 2002 (Cover Date: Released November 2002)
Journal Editor: G. Wolfram, Freising
ISSN: 0250–6807 (print), 1421–9697 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/anm
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.