Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiation Therapy of Skull Base Meningiomas: Proposal of a Grading SystemDe Salles A.A.F. · Frighetto L. · Grande C.V. · Solberg T.D. · Cabatan-Awang C. · Selch M.T. · Wallace R. · Ford J.
Division of Neurosurgery and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
Objective: The development of a grading system to guide treatment selection, and predict treatment difficulty and outcome of skull base meningiomas infiltrating the cavernous sinus which are managed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT), based on an 8-year experience with stereotactic radiation of skull base meningiomas. Methods: T1 gadoliniun-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 40 patients with skull base meningiomas, with or without prior surgery, who underwent radiosurgery or stereotactic radiation therapy from 1991 to 1998 at the UCLA Medical Center were reviewed, and the result of treatment was related to the tumor grade. Grade was based on tumor infiltration of the cavernous sinus and extension into adjacent structures. Treatment was performed with a linac-based system. The dose prescribed to the periphery of the tumor for SRS patients (n = 34) ranged from 12 to 22 Gy, and the maximum dose delivered to the tumor ranged from 24 to 46 Gy. SRT (n = 6). Treatment was planned using a single isocenter, usually prescribed to the 90% isodose volume, bringing the fractionation scheme to the maximal tolerance of the optic apparatus. The periphery dose ranged from 24 to 46 Gy with a maximum dose of 45 to 51 Gy. Clinical and MRI follow-up was performed every six months for the first 3 years and every year thereafter. Results: Grade I meningiomas were restricted to the cavernous sinus (n = 12). Grade II cavernous sinus meningiomas extended to the clivus and/or the petrous bone, without compression of the brainstem (n = 9). Grade III meningiomas had superior and/or anterior extension with compression of the optic nerve or tract (n = 9). Grade IV tumors compressed the brain stem (n = 8), and Grade V were bilateral lesions (n = 2). Tumor control rates were 90% for Grade I, 86% for Grade II, 86% for Grade III, 42% for Grade IV and no control for tumors Grade V. Complications were not related to tumor grade. Conclusion: This grading system correlated with outcome and difficulty in planning radiosurgery. Failure of treatment was more likely to occur in patients with higher Grade tumors.