Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 83, No. 1, 2003
Issue release date: January 2003
Biol Neonate 2003;83:6–11

Reproducibility of Cerebral Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Neonates

Menke J. · Voss U. · Möller G. · Jorch G.
aRadiodiagnostik, Universitäts-Kliniken Homburg, bUniversitäts-Kinderklinik Magdeburg, Deutschland

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows to study cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in neonates, which may be useful for early detection of cerebral hypoxemia. So far this method is not reliable enough to be used clinically. Reproducibility is one of the prerequisites for reliable quantitative monitoring. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the NIRS parameters HbO2 and HbD (oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration) and the derived NIRS parameters HbT (tissue hemoglobin concentration, HbT = HbO2 + HbD) and rSO2 (regional cerebral oxygen saturation, rSO2 = HbO2/HbT). Two observers repeated a total number of 500 measurements in 25 neonates. Additionally, a baseline measurement was done to assess the physiological variation in every neonate. For all NIRS parameters, the inter-patient variance contributed most to the total variance, while the interobserver variance was the smallest variance component. The cerebral oxygen saturation parameter rSO2 showed a good reproducibility, with an inter-measurement variance slightly but not significantly higher than the physiological baseline variation. The NIRS concentration parameters HbO2, HbD, and HbT were less reproducible, with significant variation due to repeated sensor replacement. However, for cerebral oximetry rSO2 is likely to be more important than the other NIRS parameters, so that NIRS has the potential to become a quantitative cerebral monitoring method.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Jöbsis FF: Noninvasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters. Science 1977;198:1264–1267.
  2. Wardle SP, Yoxall CW, Weindling AM: Determinants of cerebral fractional oxygen extraction using near infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2000;20:272–279.
  3. Mchedlishvili G: Arterial Behaviour and Blood Circulation in the Brain. New York, Plenum Press, 1986, pp 55–60.
  4. Watzman HM, Kurth CD, Montenegro LM, Rome J, Steven JM, Nicolson SC: Arterial and venous contributions to near-infrared cerebral oximetry. Anesthesiology 2000;93:947–953.
  5. Livera LN, Spencer SA, Thorniley MS, Wickramasinghe YABD, Rolfe P: Effects of hypoxaemia and bradycardia on neonatal cerebral haemodynamics. Arch Dis Child 1991;66:376–380.

    External Resources

  6. van Bel F, Zeeuwe PE, Dorrepaal CA, Benders MJ, van de Bor M, Hardjowijono R: Changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates and infants. Biol Neonate 1996;70:141–154.
  7. Prough DS, Pollard V: Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy: Ready for prime time? Crit Care Med 1995;23:1624–1626.
  8. Wolf M, Evans P, Bucher HU, Dietz V, Keel M, Strebel R, von Siebenthal K: Measurement of absolute cerebral haemoglobin concentration in adults and neonates. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997;428:219–227.
  9. Wray S, Cope M, Delpy DT, Wyatt JS, Reynolds EOR: Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1988;933:184–192.
  10. Duncan A, Meek JH, Clemence M, Elwell CE, Fallon P, Tyszczuk L, Cope M, Delpy DT: Measurement of cranial optical path length as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy. Pediatr Res 1996;39:889–894.
  11. Essenpreis M, Cope M, Elwell CE, Arridge SR, van der Zee P, Delpy DT: Wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor and the log slope in time-resolved tissue spectroscopy. Adv Exp Med Biol 1993;333:9–20.
  12. Armitage P, Berry G: Statistical Methods in Medical Research, ed 3. Oxford, Blackwell Science, 1994, pp 114–118, 219–223.
  13. Pattynama PMT, Lamb HJ, van der Velde EA, van der Wall EE, de Roos A: Left ventricular measurement with cine and spin-echo MR imaging: A study of reproducibility with variance component analysis. Radiology 1993;187:261–268.
  14. Ferrari M, Wilson DA, Hanley DF, Hartmann JF, Rogers MC, Traystman RJ: Noninvasive determination of hemoglobin saturation in dogs by derivative near-infrared spectroscopy. Am J Physiol 1989;256:H1493–H1499.
  15. Cope M, Delpy DT, Wray S, Wyatt JS, Reynolds EOR: A CCD spectrophotometer to quantitate the concentration of chromophores in living tissue utilising the absorption peak of water at 975 nm. Adv Exp Med Biol 1989;248:33–40.
  16. Wolf M, Keel M, Dietz V, von Siebenthal K, Bucher HU, Baenziger O: The influence of a clear layer on near-infrared spectrophotometry measurements using a liquid neonatal head phantom. Phys Med Biol 1999;44:1743–1753.
  17. Elwell CE, Cope M, Edwards AD, Wyatt JS, Delpy DT, Reynolds EOR: Quantification of adult cerebral hemodynamics by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 1994;77:2753–2760.
  18. McKeating EG, Monjardino JR, Signorini DF, Souter MJ, Andrews PJD: A comparison of the Invos 3100 and the Critikon 2020 near-infrared spectrophotometers as monitors of cerebral oxygenation. Anaesthesia 1997;52:136–140.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50