Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 92, No. 4, 1999
Issue release date: April 2000

Clinical Utility of Available Methods for Determining Platelet Function

McKenzie M.E. · Gurbel P.A. · Levine D.J. · Serebruany V.L.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Determination of platelet function has become increasingly important as new antiplatelet drugs are being developed. Objective means to monitor the pharmacological effects of these agents, in order to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity, is needed. The available methods for determination of platelet function at the current time are reviewed, including platelet aggregometry, the PFA-100, flow cytometry, platelet contractile force, the rapid platelet function assay, the clot signature analyzer, Sonoclot, and thromboelastography. The principle, advantages, disadvantages, and clinical utility of each method is presented. The uses of the various methods of determining platelet function reported in the literature are summarized, in an effort to provide information regarding the applicability of those different methods.

Copyright © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Kleinman NS, Lincoff AM, Ohman EM, Harrington RA: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome: Pathophysiologic foundation and clinical findings. Am Heart J 1998;136(4 Pt 2 Su):S32–S42.
  2. Kugelmass AD: Inhibitors of the platelet GP IIb-IIIa function in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes. Curr Opin Hematol 1997;4:301–305.
  3. Kereiakes DJ: Oral blockade of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor: Fact or fancy? Am Heart J 1999;138 (1 Pt 2):39–46.
  4. Rodgers GM: Overview of platelet physiology and laboratory evaluation of platelet function. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1999;42:349–359.
  5. Chong BH, Burgess J, Ismail F: The clinical usefulness of the platelet aggregation test for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Thromb Haemost 1993;69:344–350.
  6. Becker RC: Thrombosis and the role of the platelet. Am J Cardiol 1999;83:3E–6E.

    External Resources

  7. Born GVR: Qualitative investigations into the aggregation of blood platelets. J Physiol (Lond) 1962;67:162.
  8. Mascelli MA, Worley S, Veriabo NJ, Lance ET, Mack S, Schaible T, Weisman HF, Jordan RE: Rapid assessment of platelet function with a modified whole-blood aggregometer in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty patients receiving anti-GP IIb/IIIa therapy. Circulation 1997;96:3860–3866.
  9. Satoh K, Ozaki Y, Kume S: Detection of platelet aggregates using light scattering. Rinsho Byori 1995;43:426–431.
  10. Salmon DM: Optimisation of platelet aggregometry utilising micotitreplate technology and integrated software. Thromb Res 1996;84:213–216.
  11. Nielsen HK, Christensen NJ, Husted SE: A new automated technique for platelet aggregation measurement. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1984;44:217–222.

    External Resources

  12. Elwood PC, Beswick AD, Sharp DS, Yarnell JW, Rogers S, Renaud S: Whole blood impedance platelet aggregometry and ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly Collaborative Heart Disease Study. Arteriosclerosis 1990;10:1032–1036.
  13. Breddin HK, Lippold R, Bittner M, Kirchmaier CM, Krzywanek HJ, Michaelis J: Spontaneous platelet aggregation as a predictive risk factor for vascular occlusions in healthy volunteers? Results of the HAPARG Study. Haemostatic parameters as risk factors in healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 1999;144:211–219.
  14. The EPILOG Investigators: Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade and low-dose heparin during percutaneous coronary revascularization. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1689–1696.
  15. Harrington RA, Kleinman NS, Granger CB, Ohman EM, Berkowitz SD: Relation between inhibition of platelet aggregation and clinical outcomes. Am Heart J 1998;136:s43–s50.

    External Resources

  16. Mammen EF, Alshameeri RS, Comp PC: Preliminary data from a field trial of the PFA-100 system. Semin Thromb Hemost 1995;21(suppl 2):113–121.
  17. Kundu SK, Heilmann EJ, Sio R, Garcia C, Davidson RM, Ostgaard RA: Description of an in vitro platelet function analyzer – PFA-100. Semin Thromb Hemost 1995;21(suppl 2):106–112.
  18. Mammen EF, Comp PC, Gosselin R, Greenberg C, Hoots WK, Kessler CM, Larkin EC, Liles D, Nugent DJ: PFA-100 system: A new method for assessment of platelet dysfunction. Semin Thromb Hemost 1998;24:195–202.
  19. Rodgers RPC, Levin J: A critical appraisal of the bleeding time. Semin Thromb Hemost 1990;16:1–20.
  20. Kottke-Marchant K, Powers J, Brooks L: Inhibition of platelet function with ReoPro (abciximab) detected by the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100) in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Blood 1997;90(suppl 1):70b.
  21. Di Paola J, Federici AB, Mannucci PM, Canciani MT, Kritzik M, Kunicki TJ, Nugent D: Low platelet alpha2beta1 levels in type I von Willebrand disease correlate with impaired platelet function in a high shear stress system. Blood 1999;93:3578–3582.
  22. Fressinaud E, Veyradier A, Truchaud F, Martin I, Boyer-Neumann C, Trossaert M, Meyer D: Screening for von Willebrand disease with a new analyzer using high shear stress: A study of 60 cases. Blood 1998;91:1325–1331.
  23. Rand ML, Carcao MD, Blanchette VS: Use of the PFA-100 in the assessment of primary, platelet-related hemostasis in a pediatric setting. Semin Thromb Hemost 1998;24:523–529.
  24. Harrison P, Robinson MS, Mackie IJ, Joseph J, McDonald SJ, Liesner R, Savidge GF, Pasi J, Machin SJ: Performance of the platelet function analyser PFA-100 in testing abnormalities of primary haemostasis. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1999;10:25–31.
  25. Mody M, Lazarus AH, Semple JW, Freedman J: Preanalytical requirements for flow cytometric evaluation of platelet activation: Choice of anticoagulant. Transfus Med 1999;9:147–154.
  26. Rinder HM: Platelet function testing by flow cytometry. Clin Lab Sci 1998;11:365–372.

    External Resources

  27. Kohmura C, Hayashi Y, Ikeda H: Detection of activated platelets by flow cytometry. Rinsho Byori 1999;47:447–452.
  28. Quinn M, Deering A, Stewart M, Cox D, Foley B, Fitzgerald D: Quantifying GPIIb/IIIa receptor binding using 2 monoclonal antibodies: Discriminating abciximab and small molecular weight antagonists. Circulation 1999;99:2231–2238.
  29. Xiao Z, Theroux P, Frojmovic M: Modulation of platelet-neutrophil interaction with pharmacological inhibition of fibrinogen binding to platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor. Thromb Haemost 1999;81:281–285.
  30. Bihour C, Durrieu-Jais C, Macchi L, Poujol C, Coste P, Besse P, Nurden P, Nurden AT: Expression of markers of platelet activation and the interpatient variation in response to abciximab. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:212–219.
  31. Holmes MB, Sobel BE, Schneider DJ: Variable responses to inhibition of fibrinogen binding induced by tirofiban and eptifibatide in blood from healthy subjects. Am J Cardiol 1999;84:203–207.
  32. Holmes MB, Sobel BE, Howard DB, Schneider DJ: Differences between activation thresholds for platelet P-selectin glycoprotein IIb-IIIa expression and their clinical implications. Thromb Res 1999;95:75–82.
  33. Goodall AH, Curzen N, Panesar M, Hurd C, Knight CJ, Ouwehand WH, Fox KM: Increased binding of fibrinogen to glycoprotein IIIa-proline33 (HPA-1b, P1A2, Zwb) positive platelets in patients with cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 1999;20:742–747.
  34. Tarnok A, Mahnke A, Muller M, Zotz RJ: Rapid in vitro biocompatibility assay of endovascular stents by flow cytometry using platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Cytometry 1999;38:30–39.
  35. Beythien C, Gutensohn K, Bau J, Hamm CW, Kuhnl P, Meinertz T, Terres W: Influences of stent length and heparin coating on platelet activation: A flow cytometric analysis in a pulsed floating model. Thromb Res 1999;94:79–86.
  36. O’Connor CM, Gurbel PA, Serebruany VL: Usefulness of soluble and surface-bound P-selectin in detecting heightened platelet activity in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1999;83:1345–1349.
  37. Zeller JA, Tschoepe D, Kessler C: Circulating platelets show increased activation in patients with acute cerebral ischemia. Thromb Haemost 1999;81:373–377.
  38. Carr ME Jr: Measurement of platelet force: The Hemodyne hemostasis analyzer. Clin Lab Manage Rev 1995;9:312–314, 316–318, 320.
  39. Carr ME, Zekert SL: Force monitoring of clot retraction during DDAVP therapy for the qualitative platelet disorder of uraemia: Report of a case. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1991;2:303–308.
  40. Greilich PE, Carr ME, Carr SL, Chang AS: Reductions in platelet force development by cardiopulmonary bypass are associated with hemorrhage. Anesth Analg 1995;80:459–465.
  41. Carr ME, Carr SL, Hantgan RR, Braaten J: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade inhibits platelet mediated force development and reduces gel elastic modulus. Thromb Haemost 1995;73:499–505.
  42. Greilich PE, Alving BM, Longnecker D, Carr ME Jr, Whitten CW, Chang AS, Reid TJ: Near-site monitoring of the antiplatelet drug abciximab using the Hemodyne analyzer and modified thromboelastograph. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1999;13:58–64.
  43. Smith JW, Steinhubl SR, Lincoff AM, Coleman JC, Lee TT, Hillman RS, Coller BS: Rapid platelet-function assay: An automated and quantitative cartridge-based method. Circulation 1999;99:620–625.
  44. Kereiakes DJ, Mueller M, Howard W, Lacock P, Anderson LC, Broderick TM, Roth EM, Abbottsmith CW: Efficacy of abciximab induced platelet blockade using a rapid point of care assay. J Thromb Thrombolysis 1999;7:265–276.
  45. Li CK, Hoffmann TJ, Hsieh PY, Malik S, Watson WC: The Xylum clot signature analyzer: A dynamic flow system that simulates vascular injury. Thromb Res 1998;92(suppl 2):67–77.
  46. Chandler WL, Schmer G: Evaluation of a new dynamic viscometer for measuring the viscosity of whole blood and plasma. Clin Chem 1986;32:505–507.

    External Resources

  47. Horlocker TT, Schroeder DR: Effect of age, gender, and platelet count on Sonoclot coagulation analysis in patients undergoing orthopedic operations. Mayo Clin Proc 1997;72:214–219.
  48. Samra SK, Harrison RL, Bee DE, Valero V: A study of aspirin induced changes in bleeding time, platelet aggregation, and Sonoclot coagulation analysis in human. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1991;21:315–327.

    External Resources

  49. Miyashita T, Kuro M: Evaluation of platelet function by Sonoclot analysis compared with other hemostatic variables in cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 1998;87:1228–1233.
  50. Stern MP, DeVos-Doyle K, Viguera MG, Lajos TZ: Evaluation of postcardiopulmonary bypass Sonoclot signatures in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1989;3:730–733.

    External Resources

  51. Pivalizza EG, Abramson DC, Harvey A: Perioperative hypercoagulability in uremic patients: A viscoelastic study. J Clin Anesth 1997;9:442–445.
  52. Francis JL, Francis DA, Gunathilagan GJ: Assessment of hypercoagulability in patients with cancer using the Sonoclot analyzer and thromboelastography. Thromb Res 1994;74:335–346.
  53. Shih RL, Cherng YG, Chao A, Chen JT, Tsai AL, Liu CC: Prediction of bleeding diathesis in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery: Viscoelastic measures versus routine coagulation test. Acta Aneasthesiol Sin 1997;35:133–139.
  54. Wenker O, Wojciechowski Z, Sheinbaum R, Zisman E: Thromboelastography. Internet J Anesthesiol 1997;1(3)(http://www.ispub.com/journals/IJA/Vol1N3/teg.htm).
  55. Cherng YG, Chao A, Shih RL, Lin CS, Chan WH, Huang CH, Tsai SK: Preoperative evaluation and postoperative prediction of hemostatic function with thromboelastography in patients undergoing redo cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin 1998;36:179–186.
  56. Shore-Lesserson L, Manspeizer HE, DePerio M, Francis S, Vela-Cantos F, Ergin MA: Thromboelastography-guided transfusion algorithm reduces transfusions in complex cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 1999;88:312–319.
  57. Kang YG, Martin DJ, Marquez J, Lewis JH, Bontempo FA, Shaw BW, Starzl TE, Winter PM: Intraoperative changes in blood coagulation and thromboelastographic monitoring in liver transplantation. Anesth Analg 1985;64:888–896.

    External Resources

  58. Chau TN, Chan YW, Patch D, Tokunaga S, Greenslade L, Burroughs AK: Thromboelastographic changes and early rebleeding in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. Gut 1998;43:267–271.
  59. Ben-Ari Z, Panagou M, Patch D, Bates S, Osman E, Pasi J, Burroughs A: Hypercoagulability in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis evaluated by thromboelastography. J Hepatol 1997;26:554–559.

    External Resources

  60. Khurana S, Mattson JC, Westley S, O’Neill WW, Timmis GC, Safian RD: Monitoring platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-fibrin interaction with tissue factor-activated thromboelastography. J Lab Clin Med 1997;130:401–411.
  61. Greilich PE, Alving BM, O’Neill KL, Chang AS, Reid TJ: A modified thromboelastographic method for monitoring c7E3 Fab in heparinized patients. Anesth Analg 1997;84:31–38.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50