Objectives: To study the relationship between prenatal ultrasound features and postnatal course of meconium peritonitis. Methods: Meconium peritonitis was diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. Fetuses were treated by intrauterine paracentesis of ascites when indicated, and symptomatic newborns received surgery. Results: Totally 17 cases were enrolled. Prenatal ultrasound findings include abdominal calcification (16/17), fetal ascites (12/17), hydramnios (9/17), pseudocyst (7/17) and dilated bowel loop (6/17). Persistent ascites, pseudocyst or dilated bowel loop are most sensitive (92%) to predict postnatal surgery (p = 0.022). The survivors have a higher gestational age at birth (36.4 vs. 33.3 weeks, p = 0.008). Persistent ascites and postnatal persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborns significantly correlate with neonatal mortality (p = 0.029 and 0.022). Conclusion: Prenatal ultrasound can predict the neonatal outcome in meconium peritonitis.
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