To view the fulltext, please log in
To view the pdf, please log in
- FullText & PDF
- Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
- Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
- Reduced rates with a PPV account
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restriction apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
- Automatic perpetual access to all articles of the subscribed year(s)
- Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
- Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
Article / Publication Details
Family data were obtained from the relatives of 30 autistic patients, 30 patients with other pervasive developmental disorder and 30 healthy controls. Detailed interviewing was conducted to document any evidence of psychiatric illness of the family members of these probands. Anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive illness stood out as being closely associated with having autistic individuals in the family. The findings suggest that autism is a spectrum disorder that may be associated with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive illness. This type of association is consistent with a polygenic threshold effect for this group of conditions.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
- American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, ed 4. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
- August GJ, Stewart MA, Tsai L: The incidence of cognitive disabilities in the siblings of autistic children. Br J Psychiatry 1981;138:416–422.
- Bailey A, Bolton P, Butler L, et al: Prevalence of the fragile-X anomaly amongst twins and singletons. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1993;34:673–678.
- Bailey A, Le Couteur A, Gottesman I, Bolton P, Simonoff E, Yuzda E, Rutter M: Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. Psychol Med 1994;24:232–240.
- Bailey A, Le Couteur A, Gottesman I, et al: Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. Psychol Med 1995;25:63–77.
- Bailey A, Phillips W, Rutter M: Autism: Towards an integration of clinical, genetic, neuropsychological and neurobiological perspectives. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1996;37:89–126.
- Baird TD, August GJ: Familial heterogeneity in infantile autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1985;15:315–321.
- Bass MP, Menold MM, Wolpert CM, Donnelly SL, Ravan SA, Hauser ER, Maddox LO, Vance JM, Abramson RK, Wright HH, Gilbert JR, Cuccaro ML, DeLong GR, Pericak-Vance MA: Genetic studies in autistic disorder and chromosome 15. Neurogenetics 2000;2:219–226.
- Bauman ML: Motor dysfunction in autism; in Joseph AB, Young RR (eds): Movement Disorders in Neurology and Neuropsychiatry. Boston, Blackwell, 1992, pp 660–663.
- Berney TP, Ireland M, Burn J: Behavioural phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Arch Dis Child 1999;81:333–336.
- Bishop DVM: Comprehension of English syntax by profoundly deaf children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1983;24:415–434.
- Bolton P, Holland A: Chromosomal abnormalities; in Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L (eds): Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific, 1994, pp 152–171.
- Bolton P, Murphy M, Sim L, Bailey A, Rutter M: Obstetric complications in autism. 3rd World Congr Psychiatr Genet, New Orleans, October 1993.
- Borgatti R, Piccinelli P, Passoni D, Dalpra L, Miozzo M, Micheli R, Gagliardi C, Balotting U: Relationship between clinical and genetic features in ‘inverted duplicated chromosome 15’ patients. Pediatr Neurol 2001;24:111–116.
- Bottini N, De Luca D, Saccucci P, Fiumara A, Elia M, Porfirio MC, Lucarelli P, Curatolo P: Autism: Evidence of association with adenosine deaminase genetic polymorphism. Neurogenetics 2001;3:111–113.
- Chess S, Korn SJ, Fernandez PB: Psychiatric disorders of children with congenital rubella. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1971.
- Cook EH Jr: Genetics of autism. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 1998;4:113–120.
- Cook FH Jr, Courchesne RY, Cox NJ, Lord C, Gonen D, Guter SJ, Lincoln A, Nix K, Haas R, Leventhal BL, Courchesne E: Linkage-disequilibrium mapping of autistic disorder, with 15q11–13 markers. Am J Hum Genet 1998;62:1977–1983.
- Cook EH Jr, Lindgren V, Leventhal BL, Courchesne R, Lincoln A, Shulman C, Lord C, Courchesne E: Autism or atypical autism in maternally but not parternally derived proximal 15Q duplication. Am J Hum Genet 1997;60:928–934.
- Coplan J, Gleason JR: Quantifying language development from birth to 3 years using the early language milestone scale. Pediatrics 1990;86:963–971.
- Coupland NJ: Social phobia: Etiology, neurobiology, and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(Suppl 1):25–35.
- Crowe RR: Panic disorder: Genetic considerations. J Psychiatr Res 1990;24(Suppl 2):129–134.
- Daniels RJ, Peden JF, Lloyd C, Horsley SW, Clark K, Tufarelli C, Kearney L, Buckle VJ, Doggett NA, Flint J, Higgs DR: Sequence, structure and pathology of the fully annotated terminal 2 Mb of the short arm of human chromosome 16. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10:339–352.
- Fenson L, Dale PS, Reznick JS, et al: The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories: User’s Guide and Technical Manual. San Diego, Singular Publishing Group, 1993.
- First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 1997.
- Folstein S, Rutter M: Infantile autism: A genetic study of 21 twin pairs. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1977;18:297–321.
- Fyer AJ, Weissman MM: Genetic linkage study of panic: Clinical methodology and description of pedigrees. Am J Med Genet 1999;88:173–181.
- Graf WD, Marin-Garcia J, Gao HG, Pizzo S, Naviaux RK, Markusic D, Barshop BA, Courchesne E, Haas RH: Autism associated with the mitochondrial DNA G8363A transfer RNA(Lys) mutation. J Child Neurol 2000;15:357–361.
- Halsey CL, Collin MF, Anderson CL: Extremely low-birth-weight children and their peers: A comparison of school-age outcomes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:790–794.
- Ingram JL, Stodgell CJ, Hyman SL, Figlewiez DA, Weitkamp LR, Rodier PM: Discovery of allelic variants of HOXA1 and HOXB1: Genetic susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders. Teratology 2000;62:393–405.
- International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (IMGSAC): Further characterization of the autism susceptibility locus AUTS1 on chromosome 7q. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10:973–982.
- Ivarsson SA, Bjerre I, Vegfors P, Ahlfors K: Autism as one of several disabilities in two children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Neuropediatrics 1990;21:102–103.
- Juul-Dam N, Townsend J, Courchesne E: Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors in autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and the general population. Pediatrics 2001;107:E63.
- Kendler KS, Myers J, Prescott CA, Neale MC: The genetic epidemiology of irrational fears and phobias in men. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:257–265.
- Kientz MA, Dunn W: A comparison of the performance of children with and without autism on the sensory profile. Am J Occup Ther 1997;51:530–537.
- Knowles JA, Fyer AJ, Vieland VJ, Weissman MM, Hodge SE, Heiman GA, Haghighi F, de Jesus GM, Rassnick H, Preud’homme-Rivelli X, Austin T, Cunjak J, Mick S, Fine LD, Woodley KA, Das K, Maier W, Adams PB, Freimer NB, Klein DF, Gilliam TC: Results of a genome-wide genetic screen for panic disorder. Am J Med Genet 1998;81:139–147.
- Kurita H, Kita M, Miyake Y: A comparative study of development and symptoms among disintegrative psychosis and infantile autism with and without speech loss. J Autism Dev Disord 1992;22:175–188.
- Lai CS, Fisher SE, Hurst JA, Levy ER, Hodgson S, Fox M, Jeremiah S, Pvey S, Jamison DC, Green ED, Vargha-Khadem F, Monaco AP: The SPCH1 region on human 7q31: Genomic characterization of the critical interval and localization of translocations associated with speech and language disorder. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:357–368.
- Landa R, Piven J, Wzorek M, Gayle J, Cloud D, Chase G, Folstein S: Social language use in parents of autistic individuals. Psychol Med 1992;22:245–254.
- Lassig JP, Vachirasomtoon K, Hartzell K, Leventhal M, Courchesne E, Courchesne R, Lord C, Leventhal BL, Cook EH Jr: Physical mapping of the serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor gene (HTR7) to chromosome 10 and pseudogene (GTR7P) to chromosome 12, and testing of linkage disequilibrium between HTR7 and autistic disorder. Am J Med Genet 1999;88:472–475.
- Lauritsen M, Ewald H: The genetics of autism. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001;103:411–427.
- Laxova R: Fragile X syndrome. Adv Pediatr 1994;41:305–342.
- Le Couteur A, Bailey AJ, Rutter M, Gottesman I: An epidemiologically based twin study of autism. First World Congr Psychiatr Genet, Cambridge, August 1989.
- Lord C, Leventhal BL, Cook EH Jr: Quantifying the phenotype in autism spectrum disorders. Am J Med Genet 2001;105:36–38.
- Lowe TL, Tanaka K, Seashore MR, Young JG, Cohen DJ: Detection of phenylketonuria in autistic and psychotic children. JAMA 1980;243:126–128.
- Maestrini E, Paul A, Monaco AP, Bailey A: Identifying autism susceptibility genes. Neuron 2000;28:19–24.
- Michaelis RC, Copeland-Yates SA, Sossey-Alaoui K, Skinner C, Friez MJ, Lonshore JW, Simensen RJ, Schroer RJ, Stevenson RE: The HOPA gene dodecamer duplication is not a significant etiological factor in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2000;30:355–358.
- Minton J, Campbell M, Green W, Jennings S, Samit C: Cognitive assessment of siblings of autistic children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1982;21:256–261.
- Murphy M, Bolton PF, Pickles A, Fombonne E, Piven J, Rutter M: Personality traits of the relatives of autistic probands. Psychol Med 2000;30:1411–1424.
- Pato MT, Schindler KM, Pato CN: The genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2001;3:163–168.
- Pickles A, Starr E, Kazak S, Bolton P, Papanikolaou K, Bailey A, Goodman R, Rutter M: Variable expression of the autism broader phenotype: Findings from extended pedigrees. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2000;41:491–502.
- Piven J: The broad autism phenotype: A complementary strategy for molecular genetic studies of autism. Am J Med Genet 2001;105:34–35.
- Piven J, Gayle J, Chase G, Fink B, Landa R, Wzorek M, Folstein S: A family history study of neuropsychiatric disorders in the adult siblings of autistic individuals. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1990;29:177–183.
- Piven J, Palmer P: Psychiatric disorder and the broad autism phenotype: Evidence from a family study of multiple-incidence autism families. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:557–563.
- Ramsay M: Communication genes clustered on 7q31. Mol Med Today 2000;6:380–381.
- Rapin I: Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Relevance to Tourette Syndrome. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, pp 89–101.
- Rapin I: Neurological examination; in Rapin I (ed): Preschool Children with Inadequate Communication: Developmental Language Disorder, Autism, Low IQ. London, MacKeith Press, 1996, pp 98–122.
- Raven JC, Court JH, Raven J: Manual for Raven’s Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales: Research and References. London, HK Lewis and Co, Ltd, 1982.
- Risch N, Spiker D, Lotspeich L, et al: A genomic screen of autism: Evidence of a multilocus etiology. Am J Hum Genet 1999a;65:493–507.
- Risch N, Spiker D, Lotspeich L, Nouri N, Hinds D, Hallmayer J, Kalaydjieva L, McCague P, Dimiceli S, Pitts T, Young H, Hebert J, Lin A, Ferguson J, Chiotti C, Wiese-Slater S, McMahon W, Wong DL, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Kraemer HC, Myers RM: A genomic screen of autism: Evidence for a multilocus etiology. Am J Hum Genet 1999b;65:493–507.
- Robinson PD, Schutz CK, Macciardi F, White BN, Holden JJ: Genetically determined low maternal serum dopamine beta-hydroxylase levels and the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. Am J Med Genet 2001;100:30–36.
- Rutter M: Autism as a genetic disorder; in McGuffin P, Murray R (eds): The New Genetics of Mental Illness. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991, pp 225–245.
- Rutter M, Bailey A, Bolton P, Le Couteur A: Autism: Syndrome of definition and possible genetic mechanisms; in Plomin R, McLearn GE (eds): Nature, Nurture and Psychology. Washington, American Psychological Association Press, 1993.
- Rutter M, Bailey A, Bolton P, Le Couteur A: Autism and known medical conditions: Myth and substance. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1994;35:311–322.
- Rutter M, Bailey A, Simonoff E, Pickles A: Genetic influences and autism in autism and pervasive developmental disorders, ed 2; in Cohen D, Volkmar F (eds): Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. New York, Wiley, 1997a, pp 81–94.
- Rutter M, Bailey A, Simonoff E, Pickles A: Genetic influences and autism; in Cohen DJ, Volkmar FR (eds): Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. New York, Wiley, 1997b, pp 370–387.
- Sabaratnam M, Turk J, Vroegop P: Case report: Autistic disorder and chromosomal abnormality 46,XX duplication. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000;9:307–311.
- Scherrer JF, True WR, Xian H, Lyons MJ, Eisen SA, Goldberg J, Lin N, Tsuang MT: Evidence for genetic influences common and specific to symptoms of generalized anxiety and panic. J Affect Disord 2000;57:25–35.
- Schindler KM, Richter MA, Kennedy JL, Pato MT, Pato CN: Association between homozygosity at the COMT gene locus and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet 2000;96:721–724.
- Shinnar S, Rapin I, Arnold S, et al: Language regression in childhood. Pediatr Neurol 2001;24:183–189.
- Slopien A, Rajewski A: Genetic studies in autistic disorders. Psychiatr Pol 2000;34:435–446.
- Smalley S, Asarnow R, Spence M: Autism and genetics: A decade of research. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45:953–961.
- Smalley S, McCracken J, Tanguay P: Autism, affective disorders, and social phobia. Am J Med Genet 1995;60:19–26.
- Smoller JW, Acierno JS Jr, Rosenbaum JF, Biederman J, Pollack MH, Meminger S, Pava JA, Chadwick LH, White C, Bulzacchelli M, Slaugenhaupt SA: Targeted genome screen of panic disorder and anxiety disorder proneness using homology to murine QTL regions. Am J Med Genet 2001a;105:195–206.
- Smoller JW, Rosenbaum JF, Biederman J, Susswein LS, Kennedy J, Kagan J, Snidman N, Laird N, Tsuang MT, Faraone SV, Schwarz A, Slaugenhaupt SA: Genetic association analysis of behavioral inhibition using candidate loci form mouse models. Am J Med Genet 2001b;105:226–235.
- Smoller JW, Tsuang MT: Panic and phobic anxiety: Defining phenotypes for genetic studies. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:1152–1162.
- Steffenburg S, Gillberg CL, Steffenburg U, Kyllerman M: Autism in Angelman syndrome: A population-based study. Pediatr Neurol 1996;14:131–136.
- Stubbs EG, Ash E, Williams CPS: Autism and congenital cytomegalovirus. J Autism Dev Disord 1984;14:183–189.
- Tsai LY: Pre-, peri- and neo-natal factors in autism; in Schopler E, Mesibov GB (eds): Neurobiological Issues in Autism. New York, Plenum Press, 1987, pp 180–189.
- Tuchman RF, Rapin I, Shinnar S: Autistic and dysphasic children. 1. Clinical characteristics. Pediatrics 1991;88:1211–1218.
- Tuchman RF, Rapin I, Shinnar S: Autistic and dysphasic children. 2. Epilepsy. Pediatrics 1991;88:1219–1225.
- Wassink TH, Piven J: The molecular genetics of autism. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2000;2:170–175.
- Zhong N, Ye L, Ju W, Brown WT, Tsiouris J, Cohen I: 5-HTTLPR variants not associated with autistic spectrum disorders. Neurogenetics 1999;2:129–131.