Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 101, No. 3-4, 2003
Issue release date: 2003

Sex and death in birds: A model of dosage compensation that predicts lethality of sex chromosome aneuploids

Graves J.A.M.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Birds show female heterogamety, with ZZ males and ZW females. It is still not clear whether the W is female-determining, or whether two doses of the Z chromosomes are male-determining, or both. This question could easily be settled by the sexual phenotypes of ZZW and ZO birds, in the same way that the sexual phenotypes of XXY and XO showed that the Y is male determining in humans, but that the dosage of an X-borne gene determines sex in Drosophila. However, despite extensive searches, no ZZW or ZO diploid birds have been satisfactorily documented, so we must assume that these genotypes are embryonic lethals. Given that ZW and ZZ are viable and the W contains few genes it is not clear why this should be so. Here I propose that sex chromosome aneuploids are lethal in chicken because, to achieve dosage compensation, a locus on the W chromosome controls the upregulation of genes on the Z in ZW females. ZO birds would therefore have only half the normal dose of Z-linked gene product and ZZW would have twice the amount, both of which would undoubtedly be incompatible with life. Reports of other aneuploids and triploids are also consistent with this hypothesis.   



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Baverstock PR, Adams M, Polkinghorne RW, Gelder M: A sex linked enzyme in birds – Z chromosome conservation but no dosage compensation. Nature 296:763–766 (1982).
  2. Bonaminio GA, Fechheimer NS: The gonadal histology of triploid chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos. Genet Sel Evol 25:205–210 (1993).
  3. Cline TW, Meyer BJ: Vive la Difference: males vs females in flies vs worms. Annu Rev Genet 30:637–702 (1996).
  4. Clinton M, Haines LC: An overview of factors influencing sex determination and gonadal development in birds. Cell molec Life Sci 55:876–886 (1999).
  5. De Kloet SR: Loss of the gene for the alpha subunit of ATP synthase (ATP5A1) from the W chromosome in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). J molec Evol 53:135–143 (2001).
  6. Dvorak JL, Halveson P, Gulick P, Rauen KA, Abbott UK, Kelly BJ, Schultz FT: cDNA cloning of a Z- and W- linked gene in gallinaceous birds. J Hered 83:22–25 (1992).
  7. Ellegren H: First gene on the avian W chromosome (CHD) provides a tag for universal sexing of non-ratite birds. Proc R Soc Lond B 263:1635–1641 (1996).
  8. Fridolfsson A-K, Cheng H, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Liu H-C, Raudsepp T, Woodage T, Chowdhary B, Halverson J, Ellegren H: Evolution of the avian sex chromosomes from an ancestral pair of autosomes. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 95:8147–8152 (1998).
  9. Ford CE, Jones KW, Polani PE, de Almeida JC, Briggs JH: A sex chromosome anomaly in the case of gonadal dysgenesis. Lancet 1:711–713 (1959).

    External Resources

  10. Graves JAM: The rise and fall of SRY. Trends Genet 18:259–264 (2002).
  11. Graves JAM, Shetty S: The evolution of sex chromosomes in higher vertebrates, in Clark M (ed): Comparative Genomics, pp 153–205 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2000).
  12. Graves JAM, Shetty S: Sex from W to Z – evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and sex determining genes. J exp Zool 281:472–481 (2001).

    External Resources

  13. Griffiths R: The isolation of conserved DNA sequences related to the human sex-determining region Y gene from the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus). Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 244:123–128 (1991).
  14. Griffiths R, Daan S, Dijkstra C: Sex identification in birds using two CHD genes. Proc R Soc Lond B 263:1251–1256 (1996).
  15. Halverson JL, Dvorak J: Genetic control of sex determination in birds and the potential for its manipulation. Poult Sci 72:890–896 (1993).
  16. Hori T, Asakawa S, Itoh Y, Shimizu N, Mizuno S: Wpkci, encoding an altered form of PKCI, is conserved widely on the avian W chromosome and expressed in early female embryos: implication of its role in female sex determination. Mol cell Biol 11:3645–3660 (2000).
  17. Itoh Y, Hori T, Saitoh H, Mizuno S: Chicken spindlin genes on W and Z chromosomes: transcriptional expression of both genes and dynamic behaviour of spindlin in interphase and mitotic cells. Chrom Res 9:283–299 (2001).
  18. Jacobs PA, Strong JA: A case of human intersexuality having a possible XXY sex-determining mechanism. Nature 183:302–303 (1959).
  19. Kuroda Y, Arai N, Arita M, Teranishi M, Hori T, Harata M, Muzuno S: Absence of Z-chromosome inactivation for five genes in male chickens. Chrom Res 9:457–468 (2001).

    External Resources

  20. Marin I, Siegal ML, Baker BS: The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. BioEssays 22:1106–1114 (2000).
  21. McQueen HA, McBride D, Miele G, Bird AP, Clinton M: Dosage compensation in birds. Curr Biol 11:253–257 (2001).

    External Resources

  22. Nanda I, Zend-Ajusch E, Shan Z, Grützner F, Schartl M, Burt DW, Koehler M, Fowler VM, Goodwin G, Schneider WJ, Mizuno S, Dechant G, Haaf T, Schmid M: Conserved synteny between the chicken Z sex chromosome and human chromosome 9 includes the male regulatory gene DMRT1: a comparative (re)view on avian sex determination. Cytogenet Cell Genet 89:67–78 (2000).
  23. Ogawa A, Murata K, Mizuno S: The location of Z- and W-linked marker genes and sequence on the homomorphic sex chromosomes of the ostrich and the emu. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 95:4415–4418 (1998).
  24. Ohno S: Sex chromosomes and sex linked genes (Springer-Verlag, New York 1967).
  25. O’Neill M, Binder M, Smith C, Andrews J, Reed K, Smith M, Millar C, Lambert D, Sinclair A: ASW: a gene with conserved avian W-linkage and female specific expression in chick embryonic gonad. Dev Genes Evol 210:243–249 (2000).
  26. Raymond CS, Parker ED, Kettlewell JR, Brown LG, Page DC, Kusz K, Jaruzelska J, Reinberg Y, Flejterg WL, Bardwell VJ, Hirsch B, Zarkower D: A region of human chromosome 9p required for testis development contains two genes related to known sexual regulators. Hum molec Genet 8:989–996 (1999).
  27. Schmid M, Enderle E, Schindler D, Schempp W: Chromosome banding and DNA replication patterns in bird karyotypes. Cytogenet Cell Genet 52:139–146 (1989).
  28. Shetty S, Griffin D, Graves JAM: Comparative chromosome painting reveals strong chromosome homology over 80 million years of bird evolution. Chrom Res 7:289–295 (1999).
  29. Shetty S, Kirby P, Zarkower D, Graves JAM: DMRT1 in a ratite bird: evidence for a role in sex determination and discovery of a putative regulatory element. Cytogenet Genome Res 99:245–251 (2002).
  30. Sinclair AH, Berta P, Palmer MS, Hawkins JR, Griffiths BL, Smith MJ, Foster JW, Frischauf AM, Lovell-Badge R, Goodfellow PN: A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif. Nature 346:240–244 (1990).
  31. Solari AJ: Sex chromosomes and sex determination in vertebrates (CRC Press, Boca Raton 1993).
  32. Teranashi M, Shimada Y, Hori T, Nakabayashi O, Kikuchi T, Macleod T, Pym R, Sheldon B, Solovei I, Macgregor H, Mizuno S: Transcripts of the MHM region on the chicken Z chromosome accumulate as non-coding RNA in the nucleus of female cells adjacent to the DMRT1 locus. Chrom Res 9:147–165 (2001).
  33. Thorne MH, Sheldon BL: Triploid intersex and chimeric chickens: useful models for studies of avian sex determination, in Reed KC, Graves JAM (eds): Sex chromosomes and sex determining genes, pp 201–208 (Harwood Academic Publishers, Switzerland 1993).


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50