Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 24, No. 4, 2003
Issue release date: August–September 2003 (December 2003)
Tumor Biol 2003;24:199–202

Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes 1 and 5: Differential Expression by Neoplastic and Stromal Cells in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Other Epithelial Malignant Tumors

Koukourakis M.I. · Giatromanolaki A. · Sivridis E.
Departments of aRadiotherapy/Oncology and bPathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Background/Aims: Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5), an isoenzyme composed of 4 M-polypeptide chains, catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with an unparalleled efficiency (anaerobic oxidation), but this function of LDH gradually fades away as the number of H over M chains increases. Thus, LDH-1, another component isoenzyme made up of 4 H-polypeptide chains, favors aerobic oxidation of pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Methods: Using immunohistochemistry in this study, we explored the expression of LDH-1 and LDH-5 in a variety of normal and malignant tissues, including lung, breast, endometrium, urinary bladder and large intestine. Results: LDH-1 was consistently expressed in all living cells, normal and malignant, epithelial and stromal, including endothelium and lymphocytes. In contrast, LDH-5 was expressed preferentially in tumor cells, while normal tissues were devoid of LDH-5 or expressed it only faintly, and the cellular population of the tumor-supporting stroma showed LDH-5 activity in a small percentage of cases. Interestingly, LDH-5-positive stromal cells were associated with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α overexpression. Conclusion: It is concluded that normal tissues utilize aerobic oxidation as a means of energy production, while tumor cells are turned to anaerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon which is rarely followed by the mesenchymal cells of the tumor-supporting stroma.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Holbrook JJ, Liljas A, Steindel SJ, Rossman MG: Lactate dehydrogenase; in Boyer PD (ed): The Enzymes, ed 3. New York, Academic Press, 1975, vol. 11, pp 191–292.
  2. Harris AL: Hypoxia: A key regulatory factor in tumour growth. Nat Rev Cancer 2002;2:38–47.
  3. Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis MI, Sivridis E, Turley H, Talks K, Pezzella F, Gatter KC, Harris AL: Relation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and 2 alpha in operable non-small cell lung cancer to angiogenic/molecular profile of tumours and survival. Br J Cancer 2001;85:881–890.
  4. Firth JD, Ebert BL, Ratcliffe PJ: Hypoxic regulation of lactate dehydrogenase A. Interaction between hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and cAMP response elements. J Biol Chem 1995;270:21021–2107.
  5. Semenza GL, Jiang BH, Leung SW, Passantino R, Concordet JP, Maire P, Giallongo A: Hypoxia response elements in the aldolase A, enolase 1, and lactate dehydrogenase A gene promoters contain essential binding sites for hypoxia-inducible factor 1. J Biol Chem 1996;271:32529–32537.
  6. Yu Y, Deck JA, Hunsaker LA, Deck LM, Royer RE, Goldberg E, Vander Jagt DL: Selective active site inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenases A4, B4, and C4. Biochem Pharmacol 2001;62:81–89.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 33.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 23.00