Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 17, Suppl. 1, 2004
Issue release date: December 2003
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;17(suppl 1):3–14

Pathology and Neurotransmitter Abnormalities of Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Duda J.E.
Parkinson’s Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, and the Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


The neuropathology of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs) in specific systems throughout the brainstem, diencephalon, basal ganglia and neocortex. DLB shares many features with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with respect to LB distribution in the brainstem, and there is recent evidence that Lewy pathology (LP), which consists of LBs and LNs, may progress in a systematic fashion through the brain regardless of clinical phenotype. Increasing evidence supports a central role for LNs in Lewy neurodegeneration and engenders a ‘neuritic dystrophy hypothesis’ described herein. LP formation also occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementias, and it is unclear whether there is a common underlying pathophysiology in these diseases or if the LP merely represents a common final pathway. Cholinergic deficits are evident in both DLB and AD, with reductions in acetylcholine and abnormalities in nicotinic and muscarinic receptor expression in both diseases. Cholinergic deficits are greater in DLB than in AD, although generally there is less brain atrophy in DLB. The lower neurodegeneration and preservation of cholinergic receptors in DLB has important therapeutic implications because patients with DLB (vs. AD) may receive greater benefits from cholinergic pharmacologic therapy. Patients with DLB who display parkinsonian signs have severe dopamine neurotransmitter deficiencies similar to those in patients with PD, although the manifestation of these deficiencies is different. Both groups have striatal dopamine transporter deficiencies, but the striatal dopamine D2 receptors are reduced in DLB patients compared with PD and control subjects. D2 receptor deficiencies in DLB may be the cause of the relative lack of response to levodopa treatment and the severe adverse reaction to neuroleptics in these patients.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Hansen LA: The Lewy body variant of Alzheimer disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 1997;51:83–93.
  2. Kosaka K, Yoshimura M, Ikeda K, Budka H: Diffuse type of Lewy body disease: progressive dementia with abundant cortical Lewy bodies and senile changes of varying degree – a new disease? Clin Neuropathol 1984;3:185–192.
  3. McKeith IG, Galasko D, Kosaka K, Perry EK, Dickson DW, Hansen LA, Salmon DP, Lowe J, Mirra SS, Byrne EJ, Lennox G, Quinn NP, Edwardson JA, Ince PG, Bergeron C, Burns A, Miller BL, Lovestone S, Collerton D, Jansen EN, Ballard C, de Vos RA, Wilcock GK, Jellinger KA, Perry RH: Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology 1996;47:1113–1124.
  4. Perry RH, Irving D, Blessed G, Fairbairn A, Perry EK: Senile dementia of Lewy body type. A clinically and neuropathologically distinct form of Lewy body dementia in the elderly. J Neurol Sci 1990;95:119–139.
  5. Galasko D, Hansen LA, Katzman R, Wiederholt W, Masliah E, Terry R, Hill LR, Lessin P, Thal LJ: Clinical-neuropathological correlations in Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Arch Neurol 1994;51:888–895.
  6. Samuel W, Alford M, Hofstetter CR, Hansen L: Dementia with Lewy bodies versus pure Alzheimer disease: differences in cognition, neuropathology, cholinergic dysfunction, and synapse density. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997;56:499–508.
  7. Szpak GM, Lewandowska E, Lechowicz W, Bertrand E, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T, Gwiazda E, Pasennik E, Kosno-Kruszewska E, Lipczynska-Lojkowska W, Bochynska A, Fiszer U: Lewy body variant of Alzheimer’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease: a comparative immunohistochemical study. Folia Neuropathol 2001;39:63–71.
  8. Merdes AR, Hansen LA, Jeste DV, Galasko D, Hofstetter CR, Ho GJ, Thal LJ, Corey-Bloom J: Influence of Alzheimer pathology on clinical diagnostic accuracy in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2003;60:1586–1590.
  9. Pompeu F, Growdon JH: Diagnosing dementia with Lewy bodies. Arch Neurol 2002;59:29–30.
  10. Polymeropoulos MH, Lavedan C, Leroy E, Ide SE, Dehejia A, Dutra A, Pike B, Root H, Rubenstein J, Boyer R, Stenroos ES, Chandrasekharappa S, Athanassiadou A, Papapetropoulos T, Johnson WG, Lazzarini AM, Duvoisin RC, Di Iorio G, Golbe LI, Nussbaum RL: Mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene identified in families with Parkinson’s disease. Science 1997;276:2045–2047.
  11. Kruger R, Kuhn W, Muller T, Woitalla D, Graeber M, Kosel S, Przuntek H, Epplen JT, Schols L, Riess O: Ala30Pro mutation in the gene encoding alpha-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease. Nat Genet 1998;18:106–108.
  12. Spillantini MG, Schmidt ML, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ, Jakes R, Goedert M: Alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies. Nature 1997;388:839–840.
  13. Duda JE, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ: Neuropathology of synuclein aggregates. J Neurosci Res 2000;61:121–127.
  14. Irizarry MC, Growdon W, Gomez-Isla T, Newell K, George JM, Clayton DF, Hyman BT: Nigral and cortical Lewy bodies and dystrophic nigral neurites in Parkinson’s disease and cortical Lewy body disease contain alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998;57:334–337.
  15. Wakabayashi K, Matsumoto K, Takayama K, Yoshimoto M, Takahashi H: NACP, a presynaptic protein, immunoreactivity in Lewy bodies in Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett 1997;239:45–48.
  16. George JM, Jin H, Woods WS, Clayton DF: Characterization of a novel protein regulated during the critical period for song learning in the zebra finch. Neuron 1995;15:361–372.
  17. Cole NB, Murphy DD: The cell biology of alpha-synuclein: a sticky problem? Neuromolecular Med 2002;1:95–109.
  18. Okazaki H, Lipkin LE, Aronson SM: Diffuse intracytoplasmic ganglionic inclusions (Lewy type) associated with progressive dementia and quadriparesis in flexion. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1961;20:237–244.
  19. Kuzuhara S, Mori H, Izumiyama N, Yoshimura M, Ihara Y: Lewy bodies are ubiquitinated. A light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1988;75:345–353.
  20. Lennox G, Lowe J, Morrell K, Landon M, Mayer RJ: Anti-ubiquitin immunocytochemistry is more sensitive than conventional techniques in the detection of diffuse Lewy body disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:67–71.
  21. Dickson DW, Ruan D, Crystal H, Mark MH, Davies P, Kress Y, Yen SH: Hippocampal degeneration differentiates diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) from Alzheimer’s disease: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of CA2–3 neurites specific to DLBD. Neurology 1991;41:1402–1409.
  22. Gai WP, Blessing WW, Blumbergs PC: Ubiquitin-positive degenerating neurites in the brainstem in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 1995;118(pt 6):1447–1459.
  23. Braak H, Sandmann-Keil D, Gai W, Braak E: Extensive axonal Lewy neurites in Parkinson’s disease: a novel pathological feature revealed by alpha-synuclein immunocytochemistry. Neurosci Lett 1999;265:67–69.

    External Resources

  24. Gomez-Tortosa E, Newell K, Irizarry MC, Sanders JL, Hyman BT: α-synuclein immunoreactivity in dementia with Lewy bodies: morphological staging and comparison with ubiquitin immunostaining. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2000;99:352–357.
  25. Duda JE, Giasson BI, Mabon ME, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ: Novel antibodies to synuclein show abundant striatal pathology in Lewy body diseases. Ann Neurol 2002;52:205–210.
  26. Marui W, Iseki E, Nakai T, Miura S, Kato M, Ueda K, Kosaka K: Progression and staging of Lewy pathology in brains from patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. J Neurol Sci 2002;195:153–159.
  27. Braak H, Del Tredici K, Rub U, de Vos RA, Jansen Steur EN, Braak E: Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2003;24:197–211.
  28. Giasson BI, Duda JE, Quinn SM, Zhang B, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VM: Neuronal alpha-synucleinopathy with severe movement disorder in mice expressing A53T human alpha-synuclein. Neuron 2002;34:521–533.
  29. Apaydin H, Ahlskog JE, Parisi JE, Boeve BF, Dickson DW: Parkinson disease neuropathology: later-developing dementia and loss of the levodopa response. Arch Neurol 2002;59:102–112.
  30. Boeve BF, Silber MH, Ferman TJ, Kokmen E, Smith GE, Ivnik RJ, Parisi JE, Olson EJ, Petersen RC: REM sleep behavior disorder and degenerative dementia: an association likely reflecting Lewy body disease. Neurology 1998;51:363–370.
  31. Boeve BF, Silber MH, Ferman TJ, Lucas JA, Parisi JE: Association of REM sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative disease may reflect an underlying synucleinopathy. Mov Disord 2001;16:622–630.
  32. Ferman TJ, Boeve BF, Smith GE, Silber MH, Lucas JA, Graff-Radford NR, Dickson DW, Parisi JE, Petersen RC, Ivnik RJ: Dementia with Lewy bodies may present as dementia and REM sleep behavior disorder without parkinsonism or hallucinations. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2002;8:907–914.
  33. Negro PJ, Jr., Faber R: Lewy body disease in a patient with REM sleep disorder. Neurology 1996;46:1493–1494.
  34. Olson EJ, Boeve BF, Silber MH: Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in 93 cases. Brain 2000;123:331–339.
  35. Schenck CH, Mahowald MW, Anderson ML, Silber MH, Boeve BF, Parisi JE: Lewy body variant of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) identified by postmortem ubiquitin staining in a previously reported case of AD associated with REM sleep behavior disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1997;42:527–528.
  36. Turner RS, D’Amato CJ, Chervin RD, Blaivas M: The pathology of REM sleep behavior disorder with comorbid Lewy body dementia. Neurology 2000;55:1730–1732.
  37. Turner RS: Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is a harbinger of dementia with Lewy bodies. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2002;15:195–199.
  38. Uchiyama M, Isse K, Tanaka K, Yokota N, Hamamoto M, Aida S, Ito Y, Yoshimura M, Okawa M: Incidental Lewy body disease in a patient with REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 1995;45:709–712.
  39. Arai K, Kato N, Kashiwado K, Hattori T: Pure autonomic failure in association with human alpha-synucleinopathy. Neurosci Lett 2000;296:171–173.
  40. Hague K, Lento P, Morgello S, Caro S, Kaufmann H: The distribution of Lewy bodies in pure autonomic failure: autopsy findings and review of the literature. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1997;94:192–196.
  41. Hishikawa N, Hashizume Y, Hirayama M, Imamura K, Washimi Y, Koike Y, Mabuchi C, Yoshida M, Sobue G: Brainstem-type Lewy body disease presenting with progressive autonomic failure and lethargy. Clin Auton Res 2000;10:139–143.
  42. Larner AJ, Mathias CJ, Rossor MN: Autonomic failure preceding dementia with Lewy bodies. J Neurol 2000;247:229–231.
  43. Pakiam AS, Bergeron C, Lang AE: Diffuse Lewy body disease presenting as multiple system atrophy. Can J Neurol Sci 1999;26:127–131.
  44. Mark MH, Sage JI, Dickson DW, Heikkila RE, Manzino L, Schwarz KO, Duvoisin RC: Meige syndrome in the spectrum of Lewy body disease. Neurology 1994;44:1432–1436.
  45. Haik S, Brandel JP, Sazdovitch V, Delasnerie-Laupretre N, Peoc’h K, Laplanche JL, Privat N, Duyckaerts C, Kemeny JL, Kopp N, Laquerriere A, Mohr M, Deslys JP, Dormont D, Hauw JJ: Dementia with Lewy bodies in a neuropathologic series of suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurology 2000;55:1401–1404.
  46. Litvan I, Bhatia KP, Burn DJ, Goetz CG, Lang AE, McKeith I, Quinn N, Sethi KD, Shults C, Wenning GK: SIC Task Force appraisal of clinical diagnostic criteria for parkinsonian disorders. Mov Disord 2003;18:467–486.
  47. Parkkinen L, Soininen H, Alafuzoff I: Regional distribution of alpha-synuclein pathology in unimpaired aging and Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2003;62:363–367.
  48. Perry RH, Irving D, Tomlinson BE: Lewy body prevalence in the aging brain: relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders, Alzheimer-type pathology and catecholaminergic nuclei. J Neurol Sci 1990;100:223–233.
  49. Hansen L, Salmon D, Galasko D, Masliah E, Katzman R, DeTeresa R, Thal L, Pay MM, Hofstetter R, Klauber M: The Lewy body variant of Alzheimer’s disease: a clinical and pathologic entity. Neurology 1990;40:1–8.
  50. Arai Y, Yamazaki M, Mori O, Muramatsu H, Asano G, Katayama Y: Alpha-synuclein-positive structures in cases with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease: morphology and its relationship to tau aggregation. Brain Res 2001;888:287–296.
  51. Hamilton RL: Lewy bodies in Alzheimer’s disease: a neuropathological review of 145 cases using alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry. Brain Pathol 2000;10:378–384.
  52. Lippa CF, Fujiwara H, Mann DM, Giasson B, Baba M, Schmidt ML, Nee LE, O’Connell B, Pollen DA, George-Hyslop P, Ghetti B, Nochlin D, Bird TD, Cairns NJ, Lee VM, Iwatsubo T, Trojanowski JQ: Lewy bodies contain altered alpha-synuclein in brains of many familial Alzheimer’s disease patients with mutations in presenilin and amyloid precursor protein genes. Am J Pathol 1998;153:1365–1370.
  53. Lippa CF, Schmidt ML, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ: Antibodies to alpha-synuclein detect Lewy bodies in many Down’s syndrome brains with Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 1999;45:353–357.
  54. Schmidt ML, Martin JA, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ: Convergence of Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles in amygdala neurons of Alzheimer’s disease and Lewy body disorders. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1996;91:475–481.
  55. Galasko D: Lewy bodies and dementia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2001;1:435–441.
  56. Ince PG, Perry EK, Morris CM: Dementia with Lewy bodies. A distinct non-Alzheimer dementia syndrome? Brain Pathol 1998;8:299–324.
  57. The National Institute on Aging, and Reagan Institute Working Group on Diagnostic Criteria for the Neuropathological Assessment of Alzheimer’s Disease: Consensus recommendations for the postmortem diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 1997;18:S1–S2.

    External Resources

  58. Dickson DW, Crystal HA, Mattiace LA, Masur DM, Blau AD, Davies P, Yen SH, Aronson MK: Identification of normal and pathological aging in prospectively studied nondemented elderly humans. Neurobiol Aging 1992;13:179–189.
  59. Katzman R, Terry R, DeTeresa R, Brown T, Davies P, Fuld P, Renbing X, Peck A: Clinical, pathological, and neurochemical changes in dementia: a subgroup with preserved mental status and numerous neocortical plaques. Ann Neurol 1988;23:138–144.
  60. Dickson DW: The pathogenesis of senile plaques. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997;56:321–339.
  61. Hansen LA, Masliah E, Galasko D, Terry RD: Plaque-only Alzheimer disease is usually the lewy body variant, and vice versa. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1993;52:648–654.
  62. Mann DM, Brown SM, Owen F, Baba M, Iwatsubo T: Amyloid beta protein (A beta) deposition in dementia with Lewy bodies: predominance of A beta 42(43) and paucity of A beta 40 compared with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1998;24:187–194.
  63. Gearing M, Lynn M, Mirra SS: Neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer disease with Lewy bodies: two subgroups. Arch Neurol 1999;56:203–208.
  64. Haroutunian V, Serby M, Purohit DP, Perl DP, Marin D, Lantz M, Mohs RC, Davis KL: Contribution of Lewy body inclusions to dementia in patients with and without Alzheimer disease neuropathological conditions. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1145–1150.
  65. Lennox G, Lowe J, Landon M, Byrne EJ, Mayer RJ, Godwin-Austen RB: Diffuse Lewy body disease: correlative neuropathology using anti-ubiquitin immunocytochemistry. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:1236–1247.
  66. Samuel W, Galasko D, Masliah E, Hansen LA: Neocortical lewy body counts correlate with dementia in the Lewy body variant of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1996;55:44–52.
  67. Hurtig HI, Trojanowski JQ, Galvin J, Ewbank D, Schmidt ML, Lee VM, Clark CM, Glosser G, Stern MB, Gollomp SM, Arnold SE: Alpha-synuclein cortical Lewy bodies correlate with dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2000;54:1916–1921.
  68. Kovari E, Gold G, Herrmann FR, Canuto A, Hof PR, Bouras C, Giannakopoulos P: Lewy body densities in the entorhinal and anterior cingulate cortex predict cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2003;106:83–88.
  69. Mattila PM, Roytta M, Torikka H, Dickson DW, Rinne JO: Cortical Lewy bodies and Alzheimer-type changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1998;95:576–582.
  70. Mattila PM, Rinne JO, Helenius H, Dickson DW, Roytta M: Alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive cortical Lewy bodies are associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2000;100:285–290.
  71. Serby M, Brickman AM, Haroutunian V, Purohit DP, Marin D, Lantz M, Mohs RC, Davis KL: Cognitive burden and excess Lewy-body pathology in the Lewy-body variant of Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003;11:371–374.
  72. Court JA, Perry EK: Dementia: the neurochemical basis of putative transmitter orientated therapy. Pharmacol Ther 1991;52:423–443.
  73. Court J, Clementi F: Distribution of nicotinic subtypes in human brain. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1995;9(suppl 2):6–14.
  74. Bartus RT, Dean RL, Beer B, Lippa AS: The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction. Science 1982;217:408–417.
  75. Court JA, Piggott MA, Lloyd S, Cookson N, Ballard CG, McKeith IG, Perry RH, Perry EK: Nicotine binding in human striatum: elevation in schizophrenia and reductions in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease and in relation to neuroleptic medication. Neuroscience 2000;98:79–87.

    External Resources

  76. Perry EK, Morris CM, Court JA, Cheng A, Fairbairn AF, McKeith IG, Irving D, Brown A, Perry RH: Alteration in nicotine binding sites in Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: possible index of early neuropathology. Neuroscience 1995;64:385–395.

    External Resources

  77. Piggott MA, Marshall EF, Thomas N, Lloyd S, Court JA, Jaros E, Burn D, Johnson M, Perry RH, McKeith IG, Ballard C, Perry EK: Striatal dopaminergic markers in dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases: rostrocaudal distribution. Brain 1999;122:1449–1468.

    External Resources

  78. Lippa CF, Smith TW, Perry E: Dementia with Lewy bodies: choline acetyltransferase parallels nucleus basalis pathology. J Neural Transm 1999;106:525–535.
  79. Perry EK, Haroutunian V, Davis KL, Levy R, Lantos P, Eagger S, Honavar M, Dean A, Griffiths M, McKeith IG, et al: Neocortical cholinergic activities differentiate Lewy body dementia from classical Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroreport 1994;5:747–749.
  80. Tiraboschi P, Hansen LA, Alford M, Sabbagh MN, Schoos B, Masliah E, Thal LJ, Corey-Bloom J: Cholinergic dysfunction in diseases with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2000;54:407–411.
  81. Barber R, Ballard C, McKeith IG, Gholkar A, O’Brien JT: MRI volumetric study of dementia with Lewy bodies: a comparison with AD and vascular dementia. Neurology 2000;54:1304–1309.
  82. O’Brien JT, Paling S, Barber R, Williams ED, Ballard C, McKeith IG, Gholkar A, Crum WR, Rossor MN, Fox NC: Progressive brain atrophy on serial MRI in dementia with Lewy bodies, AD, and vascular dementia. Neurology 2001;56:1386–1388.
  83. Ballard C, Piggott M, Johnson M, Cairns N, Perry R, McKeith I, Jaros E, O’Brien J, Holmes C, Perry E: Delusions associated with elevated muscarinic binding in dementia with Lewy bodies. Ann Neurol 2000;48:868–876.
  84. Shiozaki K, Iseki E, Uchiyama H, Watanabe Y, Haga T, Kameyama K, Ikeda T, Yamamoto T, Kosaka K: Alterations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in diffuse Lewy body disease: relation to Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;67:209–213.
  85. Shiozaki K, Iseki E, Hino H, Kosaka K: Distribution of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies – an immunohistochemical study. J Neurol Sci 2001;193:23–28.
  86. McKeith I, Del Ser T, Spano P, Emre M, Wesnes K, Anand R, Cicin-Sain A, Ferrara R, Spiegel R: Efficacy of rivastigmine in dementia with Lewy bodies: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled international study. Lancet 2000;356:2031–2036.
  87. Jones GM, Sahakian BJ, Levy R, Warburton DM, Gray JA: Effects of acute subcutaneous nicotine on attention, information processing and short-term memory in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992;108:485–494.
  88. Levin ED, Briggs SJ, Christopher NC, Rose JE: Persistence of chronic nicotine-induced cognitive facilitation. Behav Neural Biol 1992;58:152–158.
  89. Levin ED, Bettegowda C, Blosser J, Gordon J: AR-R17779, and alpha7 nicotinic agonist, improves learning and memory in rats. Behav Pharmacol 1999;10:675–680.
  90. Levin ED, Rezvani AH: Development of nicotinic drug therapy for cognitive disorders. Eur J Pharmacol 2000;393:141–146.
  91. Mancuso G, Andres P, Ansseau M, Tirelli E: Effects of nicotine administered via a transdermal delivery system on vigilance: a repeated measure study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999;142:18–23.
  92. Mancuso G, Warburton DM, Melen M, Sherwood N, Tirelli E: Selective effects of nicotine on attentional processes. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999;146:199–204.
  93. Warburton DM: Nicotine as a cognitive enhancer. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1992;16:181–191.
  94. Alkondon M, Rocha ES, Maelicke A, Albuquerque EX: Diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat brain. V. alpha-Bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic receptors in olfactory bulb neurons and presynaptic modulation of glutamate release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996;278:1460–1471.
  95. Alkondon M, Pereira EF, Eisenberg HM, Albuquerque EX: Nicotinic receptor activation in human cerebral cortical interneurons: a mechanism for inhibition and disinhibition of neuronal networks. J Neurosci 2000;20:66–75.
  96. Albuquerque EX, Alkondon M, Pereira EF, Castro NG, Schrattenholz A, Barbosa CT, Bonfante-Cabarcas R, Aracava Y, Eisenberg HM, Maelicke A: Properties of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological characterization and modulation of synaptic function. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;280:1117–1136.
  97. Martin-Ruiz C, Court J, Lee M, Piggott M, Johnson M, Ballard C, Kalaria R, Perry R, Perry E: Nicotinic receptors in dementia of Alzheimer, Lewy body and vascular types. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 2000;176:34–41.
  98. Wonnacott S: Presynaptic nicotinic ACh receptors. Trends Neurosci 1997;20:92–98.

    External Resources

  99. Court JA, Ballard CG, Piggott MA, Johnson M, O’Brien JT, Holmes C, Cairns N, Lantos P, Perry RH, Jaros E, Perry EK: Visual hallucinations are associated with lower alpha bungarotoxin binding in dementia with Lewy bodies. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2001;70:571–579.
  100. Ballard CG, Court JA, Piggott M, Johnson M, O’Brien J, McKeith I, Holmes C, Lantos P, Jaros E, Perry R, Perry E: Disturbances of consciousness in dementia with Lewy bodies associated with alteration in nicotinic receptor binding in the temporal cortex. Conscious Cogn 2002;11:461–474.
  101. Ransmayrl G, Seppi K, Donnemiller E, Luginger E, Marksteiner J, Riccabona G, Poewe W, Wenning GK: Striatal dopamine transporter function in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Nucl Med 2001;28:1523–1528.
  102. Ballard C, Grace J, McKeith I, Holmes C: Neuroleptic sensitivity in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1998;351:1032–1033.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50