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Vol. 17, No. 3, 2004
Issue release date: March 2004
Section title: Original Research Article
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;17:196–203
(DOI:10.1159/000076356)

Incidence and Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Cognitively Healthy Elderly Subjects

Tervo S. · Kivipelto M. · Hänninen T. · Vanhanen M. · Hallikainen M. · Mannermaa A. · Soininen H.
aDepartment of Neuroscience and Neurology, Brain Research Unit, Clinical Research Centre, Mediteknia, University of Kuopio; bDepartment of Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital and cDepartment of Pathology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland and dAging Research Center, Division of Geriatric Epidemiology, Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Received: 8/13/2003
Published online: 3/17/2004

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM

Abstract

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has attracted considerable interest as a potential predictor of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Both the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele and vascular factors have been associated with a higher risk for AD, recently they have also been linked to the risk of MCI. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of MCI among cognitively healthy elderly subjects during a 3-year follow-up, and to evaluate the impact of demographic and vascular factors as well as the ApoE ε4 allele on the conversion to MCI. Methods: At baseline, the cognitive abilities of 806 out of 1,150 eligible subjects (aged 60–76 years) from a population-based sample were examined. Cognitively intact subjects (n = 747) were followed for an average of 3 years. Results: 66 subjects (8.8%) had converted to MCI. The global incidence rate of MCI was 25.94/1,000 person-years. Persons with higher age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.16), ApoE ε4 allele carriers (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.15–3.64) and persons with medicated hypertension (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.05–3.29) were more likely to convert to MCI than those individuals of lower age and without an ApoE ε4 allele or medicated hypertension. Persons with high education (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70–0.89) were less likely to convert to MCI than persons with low or no education. In subjects with both the ApoE ε4 allele and medicated hypertension, the crude OR for conversion was 3.92 (95% CI 1.81–8.49). In subjects with cardiovascular disease, the crude OR for conversion was 2.13 (95% CI 1.26–3.60). Gender, elevated blood pressure, diabetes or cerebrovascular disease had no significant effect on the conversion to MCI. Conclusion: Higher age, the presence of at least one ApoE ε4 allele and medicated hypertension are independent risk factors, but high education is a protective factor for MCI. The results suggest that vascular factors may have an important role in the pathogenesis of MCI.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Received: 8/13/2003
Published online: 3/17/2004

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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