Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 103, No. 3-4, 2003
Issue release date: 2003
Cytogenet Genome Res 103:299–301 (2003)

The androgen receptor in spermatogenesis

aGeorge H. Whipple Laboratory for Cancer Research, Departments of Pathology, Urology, and Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (USA); bInstitute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Science, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, cChang Gung Memorial Hospital in Kaohsiung and dInstitute of Medical Sciences and Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien (Taiwan)

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Androgens are steroid hormones that are necessary for normal male phenotype expression, including the outward development of secondary sex characteristics as well as the initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. Many physiological actions of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. AR functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, regulating expression of an array of target genes that are important in male pubertal development and fertility. In this review, the expression and necessity of AR in specific testicular cell types that are important in spermatogenesis will be discussed, and recent information obtained through the study of complete and cell type-specific AR null mouse models will be presented.   

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Anthony CT, Kovacs WJ, Skinner MK: Analysis of the androgen receptor in isolated testicular cell types with a microassay that uses an affinity ligand. Endocrinology 125:2628–2635 (1989).
  2. Bremner WJ, Millar MR, Sharpe RM, Saunders PTK: Immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptors in the rat testis: Evidence for stage-dependent expression and regulation by androgens. Endocrinology 135:1227–1234 (1994).
  3. Chang C, Kokontis J, Liao S: Molecular cloning of the human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. Science 240:324–326 (1988a).
  4. Chang C, Kokontis J, Liao S: Structural analysis of complementary DNA and amino acid sequences of the human and rat androgen receptors. Proc natl Acad Sci USA 85:7211–7215 (1988b).
  5. Chang JA, Nguyen HT, Lue TF: Androgens in penile development, penile erection, and erectile dysfunction, in Chang C (ed): Androgens and Androgen Receptor: Mechanisms, Functions and Clinical Applications, pp 289–298 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell 2002).
  6. Collins LL, Chang C: Androgens and the androgen receptor in male sex development and fertility, in Chang C (ed): Androgens and Androgen Receptor: Mechanisms, Functions and Clinical Applications, pp 299–323 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell 2002).
  7. de Krester DM, Kerr JB: The cytology of the testis, in Knobil E and Neill JD (eds): The Physiology of Reproduction, pp 1177–1290 (Raven Press, New York 1994).
  8. Griswold MD: Interactions between germ cells and Sertoli cells in the testis. Biol Reproduction 52:211–216 (1995).
  9. Grootegoed JA, Peters MJ, Mulder E, Rommerts FFG, Van Der Molen HJ: Absence of a nuclear androgen receptor in isolated germinal cells of rat testis. Mol Cell Endocrinology 9:159–167 (1977).
  10. Heinlein CA, Chang C: Androgen receptor (AR) coregulators: an overview. Endocr Rev 23:175–200 (2002a).
  11. Heinlein CA, Chang C: Nongenomic androgen action, in Chang C (ed): Androgens and Androgen Receptor: Mechanisms, Functions and Clinical Applications, pp 139–154 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell 2002b).
  12. Kimura N, Mizokami A, Oonuma T, Sasano H, Nagura H: Immunocytochemical localization of androgen receptor with polyclonal antibody in paraffin-embedded human tissues. J Histochem Cytochem 41:671–678 (1993).
  13. Lubahn DB, Joseph DR, Sullivan PM, Willard HF, French FS, Wilson EM: Cloning of the human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. Science 240:327–330 (1988).
  14. Matsumoto T, Takeyama K, Sato T, Kato S: Androgen receptor functions from reverse genetic models. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 85:95–99 (2003).
  15. O’Shaughnessy PJ, Johnston H, Willerton L, Baker PJ: Failure of normal adult Leydig cell development in androgen-receptor-deficient mice. J Cell Sci 115:3491–3496 (2002).
  16. Pelletier G, Labrie C, Labrie F: Localization of oestrogen receptor alpha, oestrogen receptor beta and androgen receptors in the rat reproductive organs. J Endocrinology 165:359–370 (2000).
  17. Quigley CA: The androgen receptor: Physiology and pathophysiology, in Nieschlag E and Behre HM (eds): Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution, pp 33–106 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 1998).
  18. Rommerts FFG: Testosterone: An overview of biosynthesis, transport, metabolism and non-genomic actions, in Nieschlag E and Behre HM (eds): Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution, pp 1–31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 1998).
  19. Ruizeveld de Winter JA, Trapman J, Vermey M, Mulder E, Zegers ND, Van Der Kwast TH: Androgen receptor expression in human tissues: an immunohistochemical study. J Histochem Cytochem 39:927–936 (1991).
  20. Saez JM: Leydig cells: Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine regulation. Endocr Rev 15:574–626 (1994).
  21. Sar M, Lubahn DB, French FS, Wilson EM: Immunohistochemical localization of the androgen receptor in rat and human tissues. Endocrinology 127:3180–3186 (1990).
  22. Schlatt S, Meinhardt A, Nieschlag E: Paracrine regulation of cellular interaction in the testis: factors in search of a function. Eur J Endocrinol 137:107–117 (1997).
  23. Sharpe RM, Donachie K, Cooper I: Re-evaluation of the intratesticular level of testosterone required for quantitative maintenance of spermatogenesis in the rat. J Endocrinology 117:19–26 (1988).
  24. Shumazaki S: The role of 5-α reductase in prostate disease and male pattern baldness, in Chang C (ed): Androgens and Androgen Receptor: Mechanisms, Functions and Clinical Applications, pp 155–196 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell 2002).
  25. Tilley WD, Marcelli M, Wilson JD, McPhaul MJ: Characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor. Proc natl Acad Sci USA 86:327–331 (1989).
  26. Vergouwen RP, Jacobs SG, Huiskamp R, Davids JA, de Rooij DG: Proliferative activity of gonocytes, Sertoli cells and interstitial cells during testicular development in mice. J Reprod Fert 93:233–243 (1991).
  27. Vornberger W, Prins G, Musto NA, Suarez-Quian CA: Androgen receptor distribution in rat testis: New implications for androgen regulation of spermatogenesis. Endocrinology 134:2307–2316 (1994).
  28. Yeh S, Tsai M, Xu Q, Mu X, Lardy H, Huang K, Lin H, Yeh S, Altuwaijri S, Zhou X, Xing L, Boyce BF, Hung M, Zhang S, Gan L, Chang C: Generation and characterization of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice: an in vivo model for the study of androgen functions in selective tissues. Proc natl Acad Sci USA 99:13498–13503 (2002).
  29. Zhou Q, Nie R, Prins GS, Saunders PT, Katzenellenbogen BS, Hess RA: Localization of androgen and estrogen receptors in adult male mouse reproductive tract. J Androl 23:870–881 (2002).
  30. Zhou X, Kudo A, Kawakami H, Hirano H: Immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptor in mouse testicular germ cells during fetal and postnatal development. Anat Rec 245:509–518 (1996).

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 33.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 23.00