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Vol. 48, No. 2, 2004
Issue release date: March–April 2004
Section title: Original Paper
Ann Nutr Metab 2004;48:103–108
(DOI:10.1159/000077045)

Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study

Waldmann A. · Koschizke J.W. · Leitzmann C. · Hahn A.
aInstitute of Food Science, University of Hannover, Hannover, and bInstitute of Nutritional Science, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 5/16/2003
Accepted: 8/13/2003
Published online: 4/21/2004

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0250-6807 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9697 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM

Abstract

Background: As shown in previous studies vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk for iron deficiency. Our study evaluated the iron status of German female vegans. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the dietary intakes of 75 vegan women were assessed by two 9-day food frequency questionnaires. The iron status was analyzed on the basis of blood parameters. Results: Mean daily iron intake was higher than recommended by the German Nutrition Society. Still 42% of the female vegans <50 years (young women, YW) had a daily iron intake of <18 mg/day, which is the recommended allowance by the US Food and Nutrition Board. The main dietary sources of iron were vegetables, fruits, cereals and cereal products. Median serum ferritin concentrations were 14 ng/ml for YW and 28 ng/ml for women ≧50 years (old women, OW). In all, 40% (tri-index model (TIM) 20%) of the YW and 12% (TIM 12%) of the OW were considered iron-deficient based on either serum ferritin levels of <12 ng/ml or a TIM. Only 3 women had blood parameters which are defined as iron deficiency anemia. Correlations between serum ferritin levels and dietary factors were not found. Conclusion: Although the mean iron intake was above the recommended level, 40% (TIM 20%) of the YW were considered iron-deficient. It is suggested that especially YM on a vegan diet should have their iron status monitored and should consider taking iron supplements in case of a marginal status.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 5/16/2003
Accepted: 8/13/2003
Published online: 4/21/2004

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0250-6807 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9697 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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