Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 38, No. 3, 2004
Issue release date: May–June 2004
Section title: Paper
Caries Res 2004;38:258–262
(DOI:10.1159/000077764)

Systemic versus Topical Fluoride

Hellwig E. · Lennon Á.M.
aDepartment of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dental Clinic and Dental School, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg, and bDepartment of Operative Dentistry, Preventive Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
email Corresponding Author

E. Hellwig

Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology

University Clinic of Dentistry, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg

Hugstetter Strasse 55, DE–79106 Freiburg (Germany)

Tel. +49 761 270 4950, Fax +49 761 270 4762, E-Mail hellwig@zmk2.ukl.uni-freiburg.de


References

  1. Aasenden R: Post-eruptive changes in the fluoride concentrations of human tooth surface enamel. Arch Oral Biol 1975;20:359–363.
  2. Armstrong WD, Brekhus PJ: Possible relationship between the fluoride content of enamel and resistance to dental caries. J Dent Res 1938;17:393–399.
  3. Arnold F: Grand Rapids fluoridation study: Results pertaining to the eleventh year of fluoridation. Am J Public Health 1957;47:539–545.
  4. Backer Dirks O, Künzel W, Carlos JP: Caries preventive water fluoridation. Caries Res 1978;12(suppl 1):7–14.
  5. Bibby BG, Wilkins E, Witol E: A preliminary study of the effects of fluoride lozenges and pills on dental caries. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1955;8:213–216.
  6. Burt BA: The case for eliminating the use of dietary fluoride supplements for young children. J Public Health Dent 1999;59:269–274.
  7. ten Cate JM: Current concepts on the theories of the mechanism of action of fluoride. Acta Odontol Scand 1999;57:325–329.
  8. ten Cate JM, Featherstone JDB: Mechanistic aspects of the interactions between fluoride and dental enamel. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1991;2:283–296.
  9. Chan JT, Qiu CC, Whitford GM, Weatherred JG, Clardy RK: The distribution of fluoride of prenatal origin in the rat: A pilot study. Arch Oral Biol 1989;34:885–888.
  10. Clark DC: Appropriate uses of fluorides for children: Guidelines from the Canadian Workshop on the Evaluation of Current Recommendations Concerning Fluorides. Can Med Assoc J 1993;149:1787–1793.
  11. Clarkson JJ (ed): International collaborative research on fluoride. J Dent Res 2000;79:893–904.
  12. Dawes C, Jenkins GN, Hardwick JL, Leach SA: The relationship between the fluoride concentrations in the dental plaque and in drinking water. Br Dent J 1965;119:164–167.
  13. Dean HT, Arnold FA, Elvove E: Domestic water and dental caries. Public Health Rep 1942;57:1155–1179.
  14. Ekstrand J, Oliveby A: Fluoride in the oral environment. Acta Odontol Scand 1999;57:330–333.
  15. Fejerskov O, Thylstrup A, Larsen MJ: Rational use of fluorides in caries prevention: A concept based on possible cariostatic mechanisms. Acta Odontol Scand 1981;39:241–249.
  16. Glenn FB, Glenn WD, Duncan RC: Fluoride tablet supplementation during pregnancy for caries immunity: A study of the offspring produced. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;143:560–564.
  17. Grobler SR, Reddy J, van Wyk CW: Calcium, phosphorus, fluoride, and pH levels of human dental plaque from areas of varying fluoride levels. J Dent Res 1982;61:986–988.
  18. Groeneveld A, van Eck AAMJ, Backer Dirks O: Fluoride in caries prevention: Is the effect pre- or post-eruptive? J Dent Res 1990;69(special issue):751–755.
  19. Hellwig E, Klimek J: Caries prevalence and dental fluorosis in German children in areas with different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies. Caries Res 1985;19:278–283.
  20. Johnston DW, Grainger RM, Ryan RK: The decline of dental caries in Ontario school children. J Can Dent Assoc 1986;52:411–417.
  21. König KG: Reasons for increasing the fluoride content of children’s toothpastes. Oralprophylaxe 2001;23:27–31.
  22. Künzel W, Fischer T: Rise and fall of caries prevalence in German towns with different F concentrations in drinking water. Caries Res 1997;31:166–173.
  23. LeGeros RZ, Glenn FB, Lee DD, Glenn WD: Some physico-chemical properties of deciduous enamel of children with and without pre-natal fluoride supplementation. J Dent Res 1985;64:465–469.
  24. Lemke CW, Doherty JM, Arra MC: Controlled fluoridation: The dental effects of discontinuation in Antigo, Wisconsin. J Am Dent Assoc 1970;80:782–786.
  25. Leverett DH, Adair SM, Vaughan BW, Proskin HM, Moss ME: Randomized clinical trial of the effect of prenatal fluoride supplements in preventing dental caries. Caries Res 1997;31:174–179.
  26. Limeback H: A re-examination of the pre-eruptive and post-eruptive mechanism of the anti-caries effects of fluoride: Is there any anticaries benefit form swallowing fluoride? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1999;27:62–71.
  27. McKay FS: The study of mottled enamel (dental fluorosis). J Am Dent Assoc 1952;44:133–137.
  28. Mellberg JR, Ripa LW: Fluoride in Preventive Dentistry: Theory and Clinical Applications. Chicago, Quintessence, 1983.
  29. Newbrun E: Effectiveness of water fluoridation. J Public Health Dent 1989;49:279–289.
  30. Ögaard B: Effects of fluoride on caries development and progression in vivo. J Dent Res 1990;69(special issue):813–819.
  31. Oliveby A, Lagerlöf F, Ekstrand J, Dawes C: Studies on fluoride excretion in human whole saliva and its relation to flow rate and plasma fluoride levels. Caries Res 1989;23:243–246.
  32. Reich E, Schmalz G, Bergmann RL, Bergler H, Bergmann KE: Kariesbefall von Kindern nach unterschiedlich langer Applikation von Fluoridtabletten. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 1992;47:232–234.
  33. Riordan PJ: Fluoride supplements in caries prevention: A literature review and proposal for a new dosage schedule. J Public Health Dent 1993;53:174–189.
  34. Riordan PJ: Fluoride supplements for young children: An analysis of the literature focusing on benefits and risks. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1999;27:72–83.
  35. Ripa L: A half-century of community water fluoridation in the United States: A review and commentary. J Public Health Dent 1993;53:17–44.
  36. Stephen KW, Campbell D: Caries reduction and cost benefit after 3 years of sucking fluoride tablets daily at school: A double-blind trial. Br Dent J 1978;144:202–206.
  37. Takeuchi K, Nakagaki H, Toyama Y, Kimata N, Ito F, Robinson C, Weatherell JA, Stösser L, Künzel W: Fluoride concentrations and distribution in premolars of children from low and optimal fluoride areas. Caries Res 1996;30:76–82.
  38. Thylstrup A: Clinical evidence of the role of pre-eruptive fluoride in caries prevention. J Dent Res 1990;69(special issue):742–750.
  39. Thylstrup A, Bille J, Bruun C: Caries prevalence in Danish children living in areas with low and optimal levels of natural water fluoride. Caries Res 1982;16:413–420.
  40. Thylstrup A, Fejerskov O, Bruun C, Kann J: Enamel changes and dental caries in 7-year-old children given fluoride tablets from shortly after birth. Caries Res 1979;13:265–276.