Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Table of Contents
Vol. 38, No. 3, 2004
Issue release date: May – June
Section title: Paper
Caries Res 2004;38:294–304

Are We Ready to Move from Operative to Non-Operative/Preventive Treatment of Dental Caries in Clinical Practice?

Pitts N.B.
Dental Health Services Research Unit and Centre for Clinical Innovations, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
email Corresponding Author

Prof. N.B. Pitts

Dental Health Services Research Unit, The Mackenzie Building

Kirsty Semple Way

Dundee DD2 4BF (UK)

Tel. +44 1382 420067, Fax +44 1382 420051, E-Mail n.b.pitts@dundee.ac.uk


  1. American Dental Association Policy on Evidence-Based Dentistry: American Dental Association Position Statements, 2002:www.ada.org/prof/resources/positions/statements/evidencebased.asp.
  2. Backer-Dirks O, van Amerongen J, Winkler KE: A reproducible method for caries evaluation. J Dent Res 1951;30:346–359.
  3. Bader JD, Shugars DA: Variation in dentists’ clinical decisions. J Public Health Dent 1995;55:181–188.
  4. Bader JD, Shugars DA, Bonito AJ: Systematic reviews of selected dental caries diagnosis and management methods. J Dent Educ 2001;65:960–968.
  5. Baelum V, Fejerskov O: Caries diagnosis: A mental resting place on the way to intervention?; in Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (eds): Dental Caries – The Disease and Its Clinical Management. London, Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003, pp 101–110.
  6. Department of Health: NHS Dentistry: Options for Change. London, Department of Health, 2002. www.doh.gov.uk/cdo/optionsforchange.
  7. Elderton RJ: Clinical studies concerning re-restoration of teeth. Adv Dent Res 1990;4:4–9.
  8. Fejerskov O, Manji F: Risk assessment in dental caries; in Bader JD (ed): Risk Assessment in Dentistry. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Dental Ecology, 1990, pp 215–217.
  9. Fejerskov O, Nyvad B: Is Dental Caries an Infectious Disease? Diagnostic and Treatment Consequences for the Practitioner. Nordic Dentistry 2003. Copenhagen, Quintessence Copenhagen, 2003, pp 141–152.
  10. Fejerskov O, Nyvad B, Kidd EAM: Clinical and histological manifestations of dental caries; in Fejerskov O and Kidd EAM (eds): Dental Caries – The Disease and Its Clinical Management. London, Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003, pp 71–97.
  11. Heidman J, Holund U, Poulsen S: Changing criteria for restorative treatment of approximal caries over a 10-year period. Caries Res 1987;21:460–463.
  12. Ismail AI, Hasson H, Sohn W: Dental caries in the second millenium. J Dent Educ 2001;65:953–959.
  13. Kidd EAM: The carious lesion in enamel; in Murray JJ (ed): Prevention of Oral Disease, ed 3.. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp 95–106.
  14. Kidd EAM, Nyvad B: Caries control for the individual patient; in Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (eds): Dental Caries – The Disease and Its Clinical Management. London, Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003, pp 303–312.
  15. Machiulskiene V, Nyvad B, Baelum V: A comparison of clinical and radiographic caries diagnoses in posterior teeth of 12-year-old Lithuanian children. Caries Res 1999;33:340–348.
  16. MacLeod HST, Morris AJ, Hill KB: Evaluation of personal dental services (PDS) first wave pilots: The alternative to general dental services (GDS) offered by the capitation based pilots. Br Dent J 2003;195:644–650.
  17. Magitot E: Therapeutic indications in dental caries. Part 1. Br J Dent Sci 1886;29:405–410.
  18. Manji F, Fejerskov O, Baelum V, Luan W-M, Chen X: The epidemiological features of dental caries in African and Chinese populations: Implications for risk assessment; in Johnson NW (ed): Risk Markers for Oral Diseases. Dental Caries Markers of High and Low Risk Groups and Individuals. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991, vol 1, pp 62–100.
  19. Marthaler TM: The caries-inhibiting effect of amine fluoride dentifrices in children during three years of unsupervised use. Br Dent J 1965;119:153–163.
  20. Mjör I, Toffenetti F: Secondary caries: A literature review with case reports. Quintessence Int 2000;31:169–71.
  21. Møller IJ: Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of the incipient carious lesion. Adv Fluorine Res 1966;4:67–72.
  22. Murray JJ, Pitts NB: Trends in oral health; in Pine CM (ed): Community Oral Health. Dundee, University of Dundee, Reed Educational and Professional, 1997, pp 126–146.
  23. National Institutes of Health: The diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference, Washington March 26th–28th 2001. J Dent Educ 2001;65:1162–1168.
  24. National Institute for Clinical Excellence: Dental Recall: Recall Interval between Routine Dental Examinations – Guideline. London, National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), Department of Health, in press.
  25. NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination: Restoration Longevity: Effectiveness Matters Bulletin. York, 1999.
  26. Nyvad B, Machiulskiene V, Baelum V: Reliability of a new caries diagnostic system differentiating between active and inactive caries lesions. Caries Res 1999;33:252–260.
  27. Nyvad B, Machiulskiene V, Baelum V: Construct and predictive validity of clinical caries diagnostic criteria assessing lesion activity. J Dent Res 2003;82:117–122.
  28. Pitts NB: Review of ICW-CCT meeting and philosophy and approach of ICDAS. Proc Third Indiana Conf Early Detect Dent Caries, Indiana, in press.
  29. Pitts NB, Fejerskov O, von der Fehr FR: Caries epidemiology, with special emphasis on diagnostic standards; in Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (eds): Dental Caries – The Disease and Its Clinical Management. London, Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003, pp 140–163.
  30. Pitts NB, Fyffe HE: The effect of varying diagnostic thresholds upon clinical caries data for a low prevalence group. J Dent Res 1988;67:592–596.
  31. Pitts NB, Longbottom C: Preventive Care Advised (PCA)/Operative Care Advised (OCA) – Categorising caries by the management option. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995;23:55–59.
  32. Pitts NB, Renson CE: Monitoring the behaviour of posterior approximal carious lesions by image analysis of serial standardised bitewing radiographs. Br Dent J 1987;162:15–21.
  33. Pitts NB, Stamm JW: Proceedings of the International Consensus Workshop on Caries Clinical Trials ICW-CCT. J Dent Res, in press.
  34. Poulsen S, Heidman J, Vaeth M: Lorenz curves and their use in describing the distribution of ‘the total burden’ of dental caries in a population. Community Dent Health 2001;18:68–71.
  35. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network: SIGN guidelines: A Guideline Developer’s handbook. Edinburgh, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, 2001, SIGN publication No 50.
  36. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Guideline: Targeted Caries Prevention in 6- to 16-Year-Olds Attending for Dental Care. Edinburgh, Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network, 2000.
  37. Sheiham A, Fejerskov O: Caries control for populations; in Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (eds): Dental Caries – The Disease and Its Clinical Management. London, Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003, pp 313–325.
  38. Silverstone LM: Structure of carious enamel including the early lesion. Oral Sci Rev 1973;3:100–160.
  39. Sjogren P, Ordell S, Halling A: Validation methodology in publication describing epidemiological registration methods of dental caries: A systematic review. Community Dent Health 2003;20:251–259.
  40. Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care: http://www.sbu.se.
  41. The Cochrane Library: CD ROM Update Software Ltd, Oxford, 2003. http://www.cochrane.co.uk.
  42. World Health Organization: A Guide to Oral Health Epidemiological Investigations. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1979.