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Table of Contents
Vol. 98, No. 2, 2004
Issue release date: October 2004
Nephron Physiol 2004;98:p37–p42
(DOI:10.1159/000080262)

Macromolecules and Urolithiasis: Parallels and Paradoxes

Ryall R.L.
Department of Surgery, Flinders University School of Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, Australia

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Abstract

Long-standing interest in the possible role of macromolecules in urolithiasis stems from the observation that all human kidney stones consist of a complex amalgam of mineral and organic material. This review summarises what is currently known or is hypothesised about the influences of urinary macromolecules, especially proteins, on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals, their attachment to renal epithelial cells, and their subsequent destruction within those cells. Although a list is provided of proteins that have either been detected in stones or have been implicated by virtue of their effects on crystallization, only a select handful, which have been intensively studied, have been singled out for individual discussion. The review ends with a speculative discussion of the applicability of current knowledge to the investigation and treatment of urolithiasis.



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References

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    External Resources

  25. Noyan A, Yaşar H, Bayazit AK, Anarat R, Bayazit Y, Anarat A: Urinary nephrocalcin excretion in children with urolithiasis. Nephron Physiol 2003;94:59–61.

    External Resources

  26. Dean CJ, Macardle PJ, Ryall RL: The effect of the presence of calcium oxalate crystals on the measurement of prothrombin fragment 1 in urine; in Rodgers AL, Hibbert BE, Hess B, Khan SR, Preminger GM (eds): Urolithiasis 2000. Cape Town, University of Cape Town, 2000, pp 150–152.
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