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Vol. 47, No. 6, 2004
Issue release date: 2004
Intervirology 2004;47:374–376
(DOI:10.1159/000080883)

Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis CViral Infections in Indian Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

Chandra M.a · Khaja M.N.a · Hussain M.M.a · Poduri C.D.a · Farees N.a · Habeeb M.A.a · Krishnan S.b · Ramareddy G.V.c · Habibullah C.M.a
aCenter for Liver Research and Diagnostics and bDepartment of Nephrology, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Allied Hospitals, Zafar Gadh, Kanchan Bagh, Hyderabad, India; cDepartment of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tenn., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

The present study reports prevalence of posttransplant hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 256 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and with a history of either renal transplant or hemodialysis. Out of 256 patients 138 had renal transplant and 118 were on maintenance hemodialysis. Among the patients screened, 7% had HBV infection alone, 46% were infected with HCV alone, while 37.10% were found to have co-infection of both the viruses. Our findings implicate these viruses as the major cause of posttransplant hepatitis in Indian patients with CRF and indicate implementation of stringent screening procedures for these two viral infections.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Chronic renal failure

 goto top of outline Abstract

The present study reports prevalence of posttransplant hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 256 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and with a history of either renal transplant or hemodialysis. Out of 256 patients 138 had renal transplant and 118 were on maintenance hemodialysis. Among the patients screened, 7% had HBV infection alone, 46% were infected with HCV alone, while 37.10% were found to have co-infection of both the viruses. Our findings implicate these viruses as the major cause of posttransplant hepatitis in Indian patients with CRF and indicate implementation of stringent screening procedures for these two viral infections.

Copyright © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Arankalle VA, Chobe P, Banerjee K: HCV in Pune. J Assoc Physicians India 1992;40:562.
  2. Baur P, Daniel V, Pomer S, et al: HCV in kidney recipients: Epidemiology and impact on renal transplantation. Ann Hematol 1991;62:68–73.
  3. Bruguera M, Vidal L, Sanchez-Tapias JM, et al: Incidence and features of liver disease in patients on chronic hemodialysis. J Clin Gastroentrol 1990;20:5042–5045.
  4. Thyagarajan SP, Jayaram S, Mohanavalli B: Prevalence of hepatitis B in general population of India; in Sarin SK, Singal AK (eds): Hepatitis B in India: Problems and Prevention. New Delhi, CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1996, pp 5–16.
  5. Center for Disease Control & Prevention: HCV surveillance report # 55. Atlanta, Center for Disease Control & Prevention, 1994, p 28.
  6. Das MR, Ali N, Aruna B, et al: Indian strains of hepatitis C: Prevalence and detection. Curr Sci 1993;65:477–483.
  7. Khaja MN, Munpally SK, Hussain MM, Habeibullah CM: Hepatitis C virus: The Indian scenario. Curr Sci 2002;83:219–224.
  8. Kant L, Arora NK: Transmission of hepatitis B virus in childhood: Indian scenario; in Sarin SK, Singal AK (eds): Hepatitis B in India: Problems and Prevention. New Delhi, CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1996, pp 21–32.
  9. McCullough J: The nation’s changing blood supply system. JAMA 1993;269:2239–2245.
  10. Shankar BR, Aggarwal R, Naik SR: Epidemiology of hepatitis B in India: Sporadic vs. transfusion associated infections; in Sarin SK, Singal AK (eds): Hepatitis B in India: Problems and Prevention. New Delhi, CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1996, pp 5–16.
  11. Sato S, Fujiyama S, Tanaka M, Yamasaki K, Kuramoto I, Kawano S, Sato T, Mizuno K, Nonaka S: Co-infection of hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. J Hepatol 1994;21:159–166.
  12. Pontisso P, Gerotto M, et al: Co infection by hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Antivir Ther 1998;3(suppl):137–142.

    External Resources

  13. Sumathy S, Valliammai T, Thyagarajan SP, Malathy S, Madanagopalan N, Sankaranarayanan VS: Prevalence of HCV infection in liver diseases, renal diseases and VBDs in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 1993;11:291–297.
  14. Zaiijer HZ, Borg F, Cuypers HTM, Hermus MC, Lelie PN: Comparison of methods for the detection of HBV-DNA. J Clin Microbiol 1994;32:2088–2091.
  15. Khaja MN, Poduri CD, Habeebullah CM: Modified protocol for HBV-DNA isolation and detection. Anal Biochem 2003;314:142–143.
  16. Chomeczynski P, Saachi N: Single step method of RNA isolation by guanidinium thiocynate phenol-cholorofrom extraction. Anal Biochem 1987;162:152–159.
  17. Thyagarajan SP, Mohan KVK, Mohanavalli B, Murugavel KG: Rational approach and cost-benefit analysis for hepatitis viruses screening; in Sarin SK, Singal AK (eds): Hepatitis B in India: Problems and Prevention. New Delhi, CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1996, pp 227–233.
  18. Triolo G, Squiccimarro G, Baldi M, et al: Antibodies to HCV in kidney transplantation patients. Int Nephrol 1992;61:276–277.
  19. Umlanft F, Konig R, Weyres KM, et al: HCV infection among long term hemodialysis patients: Detection of HCV-RNA in plasma. Hepatology 1992;16:224A.
  20. Vuitton DA, Chossegros P, Bresson-Hadni S, et al: Foie et infection par le virus de immunodéficience humaine. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1996;20:269–280.
  21. Radhakrishnan S, Abraham P, Raghuraman S, Kabrawala M, Eapen CE, Sridharan G, Chandy G: Infrequent occurrence of silent HBV infection among Indian patients with chronic liver disease. Indian J Gastroenterol 2001;20:85–86.

    External Resources

  22. Cacciola I, Pollicino T, et al: Occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease. N Engl J Med 1999;341:22–26.
  23. Lai ME, Farcip, Figus A, Balestrieri A, et al: Hepatitis B virus DNA in the serum of Sardinian blood donors negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen. Blood 1989;73:17.
  24. Zhang YY, Guo LS, Li L, Zhang YD, Hao LJ, Hansson BG, Nodenfelt E: Hepatitis B virus DNA detected by PCR in sera and liver tissue of Chinese patients with chronic liver diseases. Chib Med J (Engl) 1993;106:7–12.
  25. Naoumov NV, Schneider R, Grotzinger T, et al: Precore mutant hepatitis B virus infection and liver disease. Gastroenterology 1992;102:538.
  26. Carmen WF, Jacyna MR, Hadziyannis S, et al: Mutations preventing formation of e antigen in-patients with chronic HBV infection. Lancet 1989;ii:588.
  27. Carmen WF, Thomas HC: Genetic variation in hepatitis B virus. Gastroenterology 1992;102:711.

    External Resources


 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. C.M. Habibullah
Center for Liver Research & Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and
Allied Hospitals, Zafar Gadh, Kanchan Bagh
Hyderabad 500 058, AP (India)
Tel./Fax +91 40 2434 2954, E-Mail cmhabib@rediffmail.com


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: December 17, 2002
Accepted after revision: December 23, 2003
Number of Print Pages : 3
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 2, Number of References : 27


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Intervirology (International Journal of Basic and Medical Virology)

Vol. 47, No. 6, Year 2004 (Cover Date: 2004)

Journal Editor: U.G. Liebert, Leipzig
ISSN: 0300–5526 (print), 1423–0100 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/int


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

The present study reports prevalence of posttransplant hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 256 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and with a history of either renal transplant or hemodialysis. Out of 256 patients 138 had renal transplant and 118 were on maintenance hemodialysis. Among the patients screened, 7% had HBV infection alone, 46% were infected with HCV alone, while 37.10% were found to have co-infection of both the viruses. Our findings implicate these viruses as the major cause of posttransplant hepatitis in Indian patients with CRF and indicate implementation of stringent screening procedures for these two viral infections.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. C.M. Habibullah
Center for Liver Research & Diagnostics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and
Allied Hospitals, Zafar Gadh, Kanchan Bagh
Hyderabad 500 058, AP (India)
Tel./Fax +91 40 2434 2954, E-Mail cmhabib@rediffmail.com


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: December 17, 2002
Accepted after revision: December 23, 2003
Number of Print Pages : 3
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 2, Number of References : 27


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Intervirology (International Journal of Basic and Medical Virology)

Vol. 47, No. 6, Year 2004 (Cover Date: 2004)

Journal Editor: U.G. Liebert, Leipzig
ISSN: 0300–5526 (print), 1423–0100 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/int


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Arankalle VA, Chobe P, Banerjee K: HCV in Pune. J Assoc Physicians India 1992;40:562.
  2. Baur P, Daniel V, Pomer S, et al: HCV in kidney recipients: Epidemiology and impact on renal transplantation. Ann Hematol 1991;62:68–73.
  3. Bruguera M, Vidal L, Sanchez-Tapias JM, et al: Incidence and features of liver disease in patients on chronic hemodialysis. J Clin Gastroentrol 1990;20:5042–5045.
  4. Thyagarajan SP, Jayaram S, Mohanavalli B: Prevalence of hepatitis B in general population of India; in Sarin SK, Singal AK (eds): Hepatitis B in India: Problems and Prevention. New Delhi, CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1996, pp 5–16.
  5. Center for Disease Control & Prevention: HCV surveillance report # 55. Atlanta, Center for Disease Control & Prevention, 1994, p 28.
  6. Das MR, Ali N, Aruna B, et al: Indian strains of hepatitis C: Prevalence and detection. Curr Sci 1993;65:477–483.
  7. Khaja MN, Munpally SK, Hussain MM, Habeibullah CM: Hepatitis C virus: The Indian scenario. Curr Sci 2002;83:219–224.
  8. Kant L, Arora NK: Transmission of hepatitis B virus in childhood: Indian scenario; in Sarin SK, Singal AK (eds): Hepatitis B in India: Problems and Prevention. New Delhi, CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1996, pp 21–32.
  9. McCullough J: The nation’s changing blood supply system. JAMA 1993;269:2239–2245.
  10. Shankar BR, Aggarwal R, Naik SR: Epidemiology of hepatitis B in India: Sporadic vs. transfusion associated infections; in Sarin SK, Singal AK (eds): Hepatitis B in India: Problems and Prevention. New Delhi, CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1996, pp 5–16.
  11. Sato S, Fujiyama S, Tanaka M, Yamasaki K, Kuramoto I, Kawano S, Sato T, Mizuno K, Nonaka S: Co-infection of hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. J Hepatol 1994;21:159–166.
  12. Pontisso P, Gerotto M, et al: Co infection by hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Antivir Ther 1998;3(suppl):137–142.

    External Resources

  13. Sumathy S, Valliammai T, Thyagarajan SP, Malathy S, Madanagopalan N, Sankaranarayanan VS: Prevalence of HCV infection in liver diseases, renal diseases and VBDs in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 1993;11:291–297.
  14. Zaiijer HZ, Borg F, Cuypers HTM, Hermus MC, Lelie PN: Comparison of methods for the detection of HBV-DNA. J Clin Microbiol 1994;32:2088–2091.
  15. Khaja MN, Poduri CD, Habeebullah CM: Modified protocol for HBV-DNA isolation and detection. Anal Biochem 2003;314:142–143.
  16. Chomeczynski P, Saachi N: Single step method of RNA isolation by guanidinium thiocynate phenol-cholorofrom extraction. Anal Biochem 1987;162:152–159.
  17. Thyagarajan SP, Mohan KVK, Mohanavalli B, Murugavel KG: Rational approach and cost-benefit analysis for hepatitis viruses screening; in Sarin SK, Singal AK (eds): Hepatitis B in India: Problems and Prevention. New Delhi, CBS Publishers & Distributors, 1996, pp 227–233.
  18. Triolo G, Squiccimarro G, Baldi M, et al: Antibodies to HCV in kidney transplantation patients. Int Nephrol 1992;61:276–277.
  19. Umlanft F, Konig R, Weyres KM, et al: HCV infection among long term hemodialysis patients: Detection of HCV-RNA in plasma. Hepatology 1992;16:224A.
  20. Vuitton DA, Chossegros P, Bresson-Hadni S, et al: Foie et infection par le virus de immunodéficience humaine. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1996;20:269–280.
  21. Radhakrishnan S, Abraham P, Raghuraman S, Kabrawala M, Eapen CE, Sridharan G, Chandy G: Infrequent occurrence of silent HBV infection among Indian patients with chronic liver disease. Indian J Gastroenterol 2001;20:85–86.

    External Resources

  22. Cacciola I, Pollicino T, et al: Occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease. N Engl J Med 1999;341:22–26.
  23. Lai ME, Farcip, Figus A, Balestrieri A, et al: Hepatitis B virus DNA in the serum of Sardinian blood donors negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen. Blood 1989;73:17.
  24. Zhang YY, Guo LS, Li L, Zhang YD, Hao LJ, Hansson BG, Nodenfelt E: Hepatitis B virus DNA detected by PCR in sera and liver tissue of Chinese patients with chronic liver diseases. Chib Med J (Engl) 1993;106:7–12.
  25. Naoumov NV, Schneider R, Grotzinger T, et al: Precore mutant hepatitis B virus infection and liver disease. Gastroenterology 1992;102:538.
  26. Carmen WF, Jacyna MR, Hadziyannis S, et al: Mutations preventing formation of e antigen in-patients with chronic HBV infection. Lancet 1989;ii:588.
  27. Carmen WF, Thomas HC: Genetic variation in hepatitis B virus. Gastroenterology 1992;102:711.

    External Resources