Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Deletion Polymorphism Determines an Increase in Frequency of Migraine Attacks in Patients Suffering from Migraine without AuraPaterna S. · Di Pasquale P. · D’Angelo A. · Seidita G. · Tuttolomondo A. · Cardinale A. · Maniscalchi T. · Follone G. · Giubilato A. · Tarantello M. · Licata G.
aDepartment of Internal Medicine and bInstitute of Molecular Biology, University of Palermo, and cDivision of Cardiology ‘Paolo Borsellino’, G.F. Ingrassia Hospital, Palermo, Italy
Many authors have reported an association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-D allele and coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism underlying the positive associations between the ACE-D alleles and diseases are not yet clear. Previous reports showed an association between migraine without aura and ACE-D allele polymorphism. The study is aimed to evaluate if the DD genotype could also be associated with the frequency and duration of migraine without aura. In 302 patients suffering from migraine without aura (at least for 1 year), with no history of cardiovascular diseases and major risk factors for ischemic events, the genotypes of the ACE gene, plasma ACE activity, and the frequency (weekly) and duration of migraine attacks were evaluated. No drugs were given before (4 weeks) and during the study. The same evaluations were performed in 201 subjects without migraine. The molecular biologist and the physician evaluating the patient data were blinded to the clinical history and ACE-DD gene determination. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Plasma ACE activity was performed by the HPLC method. The groups were similar for sex, age and smoking habit (migraines: 302 patients (200 F/102 M), mean age 37.8 ± 8.2 years; control: 201 subjects (127 F/74 M), mean age 37.5 ± 9.3 years). Patients with migraine without aura showed higher incidence of the ACE-DD gene (48.34%) than control subjects (37.32%), p < 0.05. The frequency of migraine (average attacks per week) was higher in patients with DD (2.11 ± 1.9) than in patients with ID (1.54 ± 1.44), p < 0.05. No difference in duration of migraine attacks (hours per week) was observed. Plasma ACE activity was increased in patients with the ACE-DD gene. Our data suggest that ACE-DD gene polymorphism could have an important role in determining migraine attacks and the frequency of these attacks. Further data are needed through further studies, especially on the biomolecular level.
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