A New Combined Test with Flowcytometric Basophil Activation and Determination of Sulfidoleukotrienes Is Useful for in vitro Diagnosis of Hypersensitivity to Aspirin and other Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory DrugsSanz M.L. · Gamboa P. · de Weck A.L.
aDepartment of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, and bAllergy Unit, Hospital Basurto, Bilbao, Spain
Background: We assessed whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may provoke blood basophil activation in vitro in aspirin- and NSAID-hypersensitive patients, as detected by a flowcytometric technique using the CD63 marker – flowcytometric basophil activation test (FAST) assay – in addition to the sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) release – the cellular allergen stimulation test (CAST). Methods: Sixty aspirin- and/or NSAID-hypersensitive patients were studied. Thirty control patients without history and negative provocation challenge were also included. The percentage of activated basophils after in vitro stimulation with NSAIDs at 3 different concentrations was evaluated by an anti-CD63 phycoerythrin conjugate (FAST assay) and the amount of sLTs released in the cell supernatant by ELISA (CAST assay). Results: For aspirin, the FAST indicated a sensitivity of 41.7%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 99.4%; for paracetamol 11.7 and 100%, for metamizol 15 and 100%, for diclofenac 43.3 and 93.3%, and for naproxen 54.8 and 74.1%. Many patients showed positive tests to more than 1 NSAID. When considering the first 4 NSAIDs, the global sensitivity increased to 66.7%, while the specificity remained at 93.3%. The addition of the CAST results still increased the sensitivity up to 73.3%, but with a decrease of the specificity to 71.4%. Conclusions: The FAST shows a high percentage of positive reactions, which may reach 60–70% when 4 NSAIDs are tested and even 88% when the test is performed within 1 month of the last clinical drug exposure and reaction. The test has a high specificity above 90%. The addition of sLT determinations yields additional information in a few isolated cases. It is suggested that this test, when properly used, may help avoid some cumbersome and dangerous provocation challenges.
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