L1 elements are the most successful retrotransposons in mammals and are responsible for at least 30% of human DNA. Far from being indolent genomic parasites, L1 elements have evolved and amplified rapidly during human evolution. Indeed during just the last 25 million years (MY) five distinct L1 families have emerged and generated tens of thousands of copies. The most recently evolved human specific L1 family is currently active and L1 copies have been accumulating in the human genome at about the same rate per generation as the currently active L1 families in Old World rats and mice. At times during the last 25 MY L1 activity constituted a significant enough genetic load to be subject to negative selection. During these same times, and in apparent response to the host, L1 underwent adaptive evolution. Understanding the molecular basis for these evolutionary changes should help illuminate one of the least understood but most important aspects of L1 biology, namely the extent and nature of the interaction between L1 and its host.
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.