Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 49, No. 3, 2005
Issue release date: May–June 2005
Ann Nutr Metab 2005;49:189–195
(DOI:10.1159/000087071)

Addition of Milk Does Not Alter the Antioxidant Activity of Black Tea

Reddy V.C. · Vidya Sagar G.V. · Sreeramulu D. · Venu L. · Raghunath M.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad, India

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Tea is a polyphenol-rich beverage like wine and catechins are its chief polyphenols. Catechins have cardio-protective effects as they can scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse relation between tea consumption and the risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Addition of milk to black tea has been reported to adversely affect its beneficial effects, but the data are not unequivocal. Therefore, we assessed the effect of the addition of milk to black tea on its ability to modulate oxidative stress and antioxidant status in adult male human volunteers. Although the area under the curve of plasma catechins was lower on the consumption of tea with milk compared to black tea, it did not affect the beneficial effects of black tea on total plasma antioxidant activity, plasma resistance to oxidation induced ex vivo, and decreased plasma and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. The results suggest that addition of milk may not obviate the ability of black tea to modulate the antioxidant status of subjects and that consumption of black tea with/without milk prevents oxidative damage in vivo.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Halliwel B: Free radicals, antioxidants and human disease: Curiosity, cause or consequences? Lancet 1994;344:721–724.
  2. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM: Oxidants, antioxidants and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:7915–7922.
  3. Vendemiale G, Grattagliano I, Altomare E: An update on the role of free radicals and antioxidant defense in human disease. Int J Clin Lab Res 1999;29:49–55.
  4. Halliwell B: Oxidative stress, nutrition and health: Experimental strategies for optimization of nutritional antioxidant intake in humans. Free Radic Res 1996;25:57–74.
  5. Hertog MGL, Feskens EJM, Hollman PCH, Katan MB, Kromhout D: Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease. The Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 1993;342:1007–1011.
  6. Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Hofman A, Pols HA, Witteman JC: Tea flavonoids may protect against atherosclerosis. The Rotterdam Study. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2170–2174.
  7. Arts ICW, Hollman PCH, Feskens EJM, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Kromhout D: Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: The Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:227–232.
  8. Keli SO, Hertog MGL, Feskens EJM, Kromhout D: Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins and incidence of stroke. The Zutphen Study. Arch Intern Med 1996;154:637–642.

    External Resources

  9. Vinson JA, Dabbagh YA: Effect of green and black tea consumption on lipids, lipid oxidation and fibrinogen in the hamster: Mechanisms for the epidemiological benefits of tea drinking. FEBS Lett 1998;433:44–46.
  10. Yen GC, Chen HY: Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J Agric Food Chem 1995;43:27–32.
  11. Higdon JV, Fri B: Tea catechins and polyphenols: Health effects, metabolism and antioxidant functions crit. Rev Food Sci Nutr 2003;43:89–143.
  12. Harbony ME, Ballentine DA: Tea chemistry. Crit Rev Plant Sci 1997;16:415–480.

    External Resources

  13. Rice-Evans CA: Implications of the mechanisms of action of tea polyphenols as antioxidants in vitro for chemoprevention in humans. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;220:262–266.
  14. Nanjo F, Mori M, Goto K, Hara Y: Radical scavenging of tea catechins and their related compounds. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem1999;63:1621–1623.
  15. Ishikawa T, Suzukawa M, Ito T, Yoshida H, Ayaori M, Nishiwaki M, Yonemura A, Hara Y, Nakamura H: Effect of tea flavonoid supplementation on the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidative modification. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:261–266.
  16. Lotito SB, Fraga CG: Catechin prevents human plasma oxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;24:435–441.
  17. Leung LK, Su Y, Chen R, Zhang Z, Huang Y, Chen ZY: The aflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants. J Nutr 2001;131:2248–2251.
  18. McAnlis GT, McEneny J, Pearce J, Young IS: Black tea consumption does not protect low-density lipoprotein from oxidative modification. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:202–206.
  19. Hodgson JM, Crofjt KD, Mori TA, Burke V, Beilin LJ, Puddey IB: Regular ingestion of tea does not inhibit in vivo lipid peroxidation in humans. J Nutr 2002;132:55–58.
  20. Rietveld A, Wiseman S: Antioxidant effects of tea: Evidence from human clinical trials. J Nutr 2003;133:3285S–3292S.
  21. Hertog MGL, Swertman PM, Fehily AM, Elwood PC, Kromhout D: Antioxidant flavonols and ischemic heart disease in a Welch population of men: The Caerphilly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;85:1489–1494.

    External Resources

  22. Hasalam E: Plant Phenols: Vegetable Tannins Revisited. Cambridge, University Press, 1989, pp 154–219.
  23. Serafini M, Ghiselli A, Ferro-Luzzi A: In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:28–32.
  24. van het Hof KH, Kivits GAA, Weststrate JA, Tijburg LBM: Bioavailability of catechins from tea: The effect of milk. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:356–359.
  25. Leenen R, Roodenburg AJC, Tijburg LBM, Wiseman SA: A single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:87–92.
  26. Kivits GAA, Van der Sman FJP, Tijburg IBM: Analysis of catechin from green and black tea in humans: A specific and sensitive colorimetric assay of total catechins in biological fluids. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1997;48:387–392.
  27. Benzie IFF, Strain JJ: The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘Antioxidant power’ – The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996;239:70–76.
  28. Simon J, Mao T: Antioxidant activity and serum levels of probucol and probucol metabolites. Methods Enzymol 1994;234:505–515.
  29. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K: Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351–358.
  30. Vinson JA, Dabbagh YA, Sery MM, Jang J: Plant flavonoids especially tea flavones are powerful antioxidants using and in vitro oxidation model for heart disease. J Agric Food Chem 1995;43:2800–2802.
  31. Gardner PT, McPhaik DP, Duthie GC: Electron spin resonance spectroscopic assessment of the antioxidant potential of teas in aqueous and organic media J Sci Food Agric 1998;76:257–262.
  32. Cherubini A, Beal FM, Frei B: Black tea increases the resistance of human plasma to lipid peroxidation in vitro, but not ex vivo. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;27:381–387.
  33. Brown PJ, Wright WB: An investigation of the interactions between milk proteins and tea polyphenols. J Chromatogr 1963;11:504–514.
  34. Siebert KJ, Troukhanover NV, Lynn PY: Nature of polyphenol protein interactions. J Agric Food Chem 1996;44:30–35.

    External Resources

  35. Kimura M, Umwgaki K, Kasuya Y, Sugisawa A, Higuchi M: The relation between single/double or repeated tea catechin ingestions and plasma antioxidant activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:1186–1193.
  36. Duthie G, Pedersen MW, Gardnes PT, Morrice PC, Jenkinson AM, McPhail DB, Steele GM: The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:733–736.
  37. Langley-Evans SC: Consumption of black tea elicits an increase in plasma antioxidant potential in humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000;51:315.
  38. Frankel EN, Kanner J, German JB, Parks E, Kinsella JE: Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet 1993;341:454–457.
  39. Shahidi F, Janitha PK, Wanasundara PD: Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1992;32:67–103.
  40. Nakagawa K, Ninomiya M, Okubo T, Aoi N, Juneja LR, Kim M, Yamanaka K, Miyazawa T: Tea catechin supplementation increases antioxidant capacity and prevents phospholipid hydroperoxidation in plasma of humans. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3067–3973.

    External Resources

  41. Hodgson JM, Puddy JB, Croft KD, Burke V, Mori TA, Caccetta RA, Beili LJ: Acute effects of ingestion of black tea and green tea on lipoprotein oxidation. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1103–1107.
  42. van het Hof KH, de Boer HSM, Wiseman SA, Lien N, Weststrate JA, Tijburg LBM: Consumption of green or black tea does not increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation of humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1125–1132.
  43. Freese R, Basu S, Hietanen E, Nair J, Nakachi K, Bartsch H, Mutanen M: Green tea extract decreases plasma malondialdehyde concentration but does not affect other indicators of oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, or hemostatic factors during a high-linoleic acid diet in healthy females. Eur J Nutr 1999;38:149–157.
  44. Young JF, Nielson SE, Haraldsdottir J, Daneshver B, Dragsted LO: Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidant status. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:87–94.
  45. Nicolle C, Cardinault N, Aprikian O, Busserolles J, Grolier P, Rock FE, Dennigue C, Mazur A, Scalbert A, Amourouse P, Remesy C: Effect of carrot intake on cholesterol metabolism and on antioxidant status in cholesterol fed rats. Eur J Nutr 2003;42:254–261.
  46. de Whalley CV, Rankin SM, Hoult JRS, Jessup W, Leake DS: Flavonoids inhibit the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins by macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 1990;39:1743–1750.
  47. Morel I, Lescoat G, Cogrel P, Sergent O, Pasdeloup N, Brissot P, Cillard P, Cillard J: Antioxidant and iron-chelating activities of the flavonoids catechin, quercetin and diosmetin on iron-overloaded rat hepatocyte cultures. Biochem Pharmacol 1993;45:13–19.
  48. Miura Y, Chiba T, Miura S, Tomita I, Umegaki K, Ikeda M, Tomita T: Green tea polyphenols (flavon-3ols) prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins: An in vivo study in human. J Nutr Biochem 2000;11:216–222.
  49. Ostdal H, Anderson HJ, Nielson JH: Antioxidant activity of urate in bovine milk. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:5588–5592.
  50. Stensvold I, Tverdal A, Solvoll K, Foss OP: Tea consumption relationship to cholesterol, blood pressure, and coronary and total mortality. Prev Med 1992;21:546–553.
  51. Kono S, Shinchi K, Ikeda N, Yanai F, Imanishi K: Green tea consumption and serum lipid profiles: A cross-sectional study in northern Kyushu, Japan. Prev Med 1992;21:526–531.
  52. Imai K, Nakachi K: Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases. BMJ 1995;310:693–696.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50