Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 49, No. 4, 2005
Issue release date: July–August 2005
Ann Nutr Metab 2005;49:236–245

Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Sample of 11-Year-Old Children in 9 European Countries: The Pro Children Cross-Sectional Survey

Yngve A. · Wolf A. · Poortvliet E. · Elmadfa I. · Brug J. · Ehrenblad B. · Franchini B. · Haraldsdóttir J. · Krølner R. · Maes L. · Pérez-Rodrigo C. · Sjöström M. · Thórsdóttir I. · Klepp K.-I.
aDepartment of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; bInstitute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; cDepartment of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; dFaculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; eResearch Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, and fDepartment of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; gDepartment of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; hCommunity Nutrition Unit, Bilbao, Spain; iUnit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, and jDepartment of Food Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; kDepartment of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Background/Aims: An adequate fruit and vegetable intake provides essential nutrients and nutritive compounds and is considered an important part of a healthy lifestyle. No simple instrument has been available for the assessment of fruit and vegetable intake as well as its determinants in school-aged children applicable in different European countries. Within the Pro Children Project, such an instrument has been developed. This paper describes the cross-sectional survey in 11-year-olds in 9 countries. Methods: The cross-sectional survey used nationally, and in 2 countries regionally, representative samples of schools and classes. The questionnaires, including a precoded 24-hour recall component and a food frequency part, were completed in the classroom. Data were treated using common syntax files for portion sizes and for merging of vegetable types into four subgroups. Results: The results show that the fruit and vegetable intake in amounts and choice were highly diverse in the 9 participating countries. Vegetable intake was in general lower than fruit intake, boys consumed less fruit and vegetables than girls did. The highest total intake according to the 24-hour recall was found in Austria and Portugal, the lowest in Spain and Iceland. Conclusion: The fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children was in all countries far from reaching population goals and food-based dietary guidelines on national and international levels.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. World Health Organization: Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.
  2. Nutrition and diet for healthy lifestyles in Europe: science and policy implications. Proceedings of the European Conference, May 18–20, 2000, Crete, Greece. Public Health Nutr 2001;4:337–434.
  3. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2003;916:i–viii,1–149,backcover.
  4. American Institute for Cancer Research: Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997.
  5. Klerk M, Jansen CJF, van’t Veer P, Kok FJ: Fruits and Vegetables in Chronic Disease Prevention. Wageningen, Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen Agricultural University, 1995.
  6. World Health Organization: Food-Based Dietary Guidelines in WHO European Member States. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2002.
  7. Trolle E, Fagt S, Ovesen L: Fruit and vegetables, recommendations for intake; in: Danish Veterinary and Food Administration C. Copenhagen, Quickly Tryk A/S, 1998.
  8. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung, Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung: Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr, ed 1, corr reprint 2. Frankfurt, Umschau Braus GmbH, 2001.
  9. Steingrimsdottir L, Thorgeirsdottir H, Olafsdottir AS: The Diet of Icelanders. Dietary Survey of the Icelandic Nutrition Council 2002: Main Findings. Reykjavik, Icelandic Nutrition Council, 2003.
  10. Blomhoff R, Lande B, Ose T: Recommendations for Increased Intake of Fruit and Vegetables. Oslo, National Nutrition Council, 1996.
  11. Zo eet Nederland. Den Haag, Voedingscentrum, 1998.
  12. A nova roda dos alimentos. Uma guia para escolha alimentar diaria! Coma bem, viva melhor. Porto, Garra, Faculdade de Ciencias da Nutricao e Alimentacao da Universidade do Porto, Instituto do Consumidor, 2003.
  13. Aranceta J, Serra-Majem L: Dietary guidelines for the Spanish population. Public Health Nutr 2001;4:1403–1408.
  14. Ett halvt kilo om dagen! Uppsala, Livsmedelsverket, 2003.
  15. Institute FHP: The Flemish Food Guide Pyramid. Ghent, Institute FHP, 2004.
  16. Kersting M, Alexy U, Rothmann N: Fakten zur Kinderernährung. München, Hans Marseille Verlag , 2003, p 72.
  17. Recommendations for Fruit and Vegetable Intake for Children. Uppsala, Statens Livsmedelsverk, 2004.
  18. Perez-Rodrigo C, Ribas L, Serra-Majem L, Aranceta J: Food preferences of Spanish children and young people: the enKid study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57(Suppl 1):S45–S48.

    External Resources

  19. Andersen LF, Overby N, Lillegaard IT: Intake of fruit and vegetables among Norwegian children and adolescents. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2004;124:1396–1398.

    External Resources

  20. Eriksen K, Haraldsdottir J, Pederson R, Flyger HV: Effect of a fruit and vegetable subscription in Danish schools. Public Health Nutr 2003;6:57–63.
  21. Vasdeki VG, Stylianou S, Naska A: Estimation of age- and gender-specific food availability from household budget survey data. Public Health Nutr 2001;4:1149–1151.
  22. Young People’s Health in Context: International report from the HBSC 2001/02; in Currie C (ed): Health Policy Series: Health Policy for Children and Adolescents Issue 4. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2004.
  23. Haraldsdóttir J, Thórsdóttir I, de Almeida MDV, Maes L, de Rodrigues C, Elmadfa I, Andersen LF: Validity and reproducibility of a precoded questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intake in European 11- to 12-year-old schoolchildren. Ann Nutr Metab 2005;49: 221–227.
  24. Wind M, Bobelijn K, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Klepp K-I, Brug J: A qualitative exploration of determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 10- and 11-year-old schoolchildren in the Low Countries. Ann Nutr Metab 2005;49:228–235.
  25. Serra-Majem L, Ribas-Barba L, Pérez-Rodrigo C, Roman-Vinas B, Aranceta Bartrina J: Hábitos alimentarios y consumo de alimentos en la población infantil y juvenil española (1998–2000): variables socioeconómicas y geográficas. Med Clin (Barc) 2003;121:126–131.
  26. Steingrimsdottir L, Thorgeirsdottir H, Aegisdottir S: Hvad bordar islensk aeska? Könnun á mataraedi ungs skolafolks 1992–1993. Rannsoknir Manneldisrads Islands IV. Reykjavik, Iceland, 1994.
  27. Fagt S, Matthiessen J, Trolle E, Lyhne N, Christensen T, Hinsch HJ, Biltoft-Jensen A, Möller A, Daae AS: Danskernes kostvaner 2000–2001. Födevare Rapport 2002:10. Köbenhavn, Födevaredirektoratet, 2002.
  28. Becker W: Befolkningens kostvanor och näringsintag i Sverige 1989. Uppsala, Statens Livsmedelsverk, 1994.
  29. Riksmaten 1997–1998. Kostvanor och näringsintag i Sverige. Metod- och resultatanalys. Uppsala, Livsmedelsverket, 2002.
  30. Andersen A, Due P, Poulsen LH, Rasmussen M: Sundhedsvaner; in Due P, Holstein BE (eds): Skoleboernsundersoegelsen 2002. Koebenhavn, Koebenhavns Universitet, Institut for Folkesundhedsvidenskab, 2003.
  31. Trichopoulou A, Naska A: European food availability databank based on household budget surveys: the Data Food Networking initiative. Eur J Public Health 2003;13(3 Suppl):24–28.
  32. FAO: Food Balance Sheets, FAOSTAT. Rome, FAO, 2002.
  33. Hunt C, Nichols RN, Pryer JA: Who complied with national fruit and vegetable population goals? Eur J Public Health 2000;10:178–184.

    External Resources

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50