Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 138, No. 1, 2005
Issue release date: September 2005
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;138:1–11
(DOI:10.1159/000087352)

Plant Food Allergies: A Suggested Approach to Allergen-Resolved Diagnosis in the Clinical Practice by Identifying Easily Available Sensitization Markers

Asero R.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Background: Molecular biology techniques have led to the identification of a number of allergens in vegetable foods, but due to the lack of purified food proteins for routine diagnostic use, the detection of sensitizing allergens remains a nearly impossible task in most clinical settings. The allergen-resolved diagnosis of food allergy is essential because each plant-derived food may contain a number of different allergens showing different physical/chemical characteristics that strongly influence the clinical expression of allergy; moreover, many allergens may cross-react with homologue proteins present in botanically unrelated vegetable foods. Objective: Through a review of the available literature, this study aimed to detect ‘markers’ of sensitization to specific plant food allergens that are easily accessible in the clinical practice. Results: There are several ‘markers’ of sensitization to different allergenic proteins in vegetable foods that can be helpful in the clinical practice. Specific algorithms for patients allergic to Rosaceae and to tree nuts were built. Conclusion: Clinical allergologists lacking the assistance of an advanced molecular biology lab may take advantage of some specific clinical data as well as of some ‘markers’ in the difficult task of correctly diagnosing patients with plant food allergy and to provide them the best preventive advice.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Breiteneder H, Ebner C: Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:27–36.
  2. Hoffmann-Sommergruber K: Plant allergens and pathogenesis-related proteins. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;122:155–166.
  3. Breiteneder H, Radauer C: A classification of plant food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:821–830.
  4. Ferreira F, Hawranek T, Gruber P, Wopfner N, Mari A: Allergenic cross-reactivity: from gene to the clinic. Allergy 2004;59:243–267.
  5. Amlot P, Kemeny DM, Zachary C, Parkes P, Lessof MH: Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to foods. Clin Allergy 1987;17:33–42.
  6. Untersmayr E, Bakos N, Scholl I, Kundi M, Roth-Walter F, Szalai K, Riemer AB, Ankersmit HJ, Scheiner O, Boltz-Nitulescu G, Jensen-Jarolim E: Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients. FASEB J 2005;19:656–658.
  7. Ebner C, Birkner T, Valenta R, Rumpold H, Breitenbach M, Scheiner O, Kraft D: Common epitopes of birch pollen and apples. Studies by Western and Northern blot. J Allergy Clin Imunol 1991;88:588–594.
  8. Eriksson N, Formgren H, Svenonius E: Food hypersensitivity in patients with pollen allergy. Allergy 1982;37:437–443.
  9. Dreborg S, Foucard T: Allergy to apple, carrot and potato in children with birch pollen allergy. Allergy 1983;38:167–172.
  10. Lahti A, Bjorksten F, Hannuksela M: Allergy to birch pollen and apple, and cross-reactivity of the allergens studied with the RAST. Allergy 1980;35:297–300.
  11. Hirschwehr R, Valenta R, Ebner C, Ferreira F, Sperr W, Valent P, Rohac M, Rumpold H, Scheiner O, Kraft D: Identification of common allergenic structures in hazel pollen and hazelnuts: a possible explanation for sensitivity to hazelnuts in patients allergic to tree pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90:927–936.
  12. Vallier P, Dechamp C, Vial O, Deviller P: A study of allergens in celery with cross-sensitivity to mugwort and birch pollens. Clin Allergy 1988;18:491–500.
  13. Pauli G, Bessot JC, Braun PA, Dietemann-Molard A, Kopferschmitt-Kubler MC, Thierry R: Celery allergy: clinical and biological study of 20 cases. Ann Allergy 1988;60:243–246.
  14. Ebner C, Hirschwehr R, Bauer L, Breiteneder H, Valenta R, Ebner H, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Identification of allergens in fruits and vegetables: IgE cross-reactivities with the important birch pollen allergens Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 (birch profilin). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:962–969.
  15. Helbling A, Lopez M, Schwartz HJ, Lehrer SB: Reactivity of carrot-specific IgE antibodies with celery, apiaceous spices and birch pollen. Ann Allergy 1993;70:495–499.
  16. Jensen-Jarolim E, Leitner A, Hirschwehr R, Kraft D, Wuthrich B, Scheiner O, Graf J, Ebner C: Characterization of allergens in Apiaceae spices: anise, fennel, coriander, and cumin. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:1299–1306.
  17. Gall H, Kalveram KJ, Forck G, Sterry W: Kiwi fruit allergy: a new birch pollen-associated food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:70–76.
  18. Voitenko V, Poulsen LK, Nielsen L, Norgaard A, Bindslev-Jensen C, Skov PS: Allergenic properties of kiwi fruit extract: cross-reactivity between kiwi fruit and birch pollen allergens. Allergy 1997;52:136–143.
  19. Mittag D, Vieths S, Vogel L, Becker WM, Rihs HP, Helbling A, Wuthrich B, Ballmer-Weber BK: Soybean allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen: clinical investigation and molecular characterization of allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:148–154.
  20. Mittag D, Akkerdaas J, Ballmer-Weber BK, Vogel L, Wensing M, Becker WM, Koppelman SJ, Knulst AC, Helbling A, Hefle SC, van Ree R, Vieths S: Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:1410–1417.
  21. Bircher AJ, van Melle G, Haller E, Curty B, Frei PC: IgE to food allergens are highly prevalent in patients allergic to pollens, with and without symptoms of food allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 1994;24:367.
  22. Foglè-Hansson M, Bende M: The significance of hypersensitivity to nuts in patients with birch pollen allergy. Allergy 1993;48:282–284.
  23. Asero R, Massironi F, Velati C: Detection of prognostic factors for oral allergy syndrome in patients with birch pollen allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:611–616.
  24. Asero R: Relevance of pollen-specific IgE levels to the development of Apiaceae hypersensitivity in patients with birch pollen allergy. Allergy 1997;52:560–564.
  25. Bjorksten F, Halmepuro L, Hannuksela M: Extraction and properties of apple allergens. Allergy 1980;35:671–677.
  26. Rudeschko O, Fahlbusch B, Henzgen M, Schlenvoigt G, Herrmann D, Vieths S, Jager C: Investigation of the stability of apple allergen extracts. Allergy 1995;50:575–579.
  27. Asero R: Detection and clinical characterization of patients with oral allergy syndrome caused by stable allergens in Rosaceae and nuts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83:377–383.
  28. Ortolani C, Ispano M, Pastorello EA, Ansaloni R, Magri GC: Comparison of results of skin prick tests (with fresh foods and commercial food extracts) and RAST in 100 patients with oral allergy syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83:683–690.
  29. Lahti A, Hannuksela M: Hypersensitivity to apple and carrot can be reliably detected with fresh material. Allergy 1978;33:143–146.
  30. Rosen JP, Selcow JE, Mendelson LM, Gradofsky MP, Factor JM, Sampson HA: Skin testing with natural foods in patients suspected of having food allergies: is it a necessity? J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;93:1068–1073.
  31. Ballmer-Weber BK, Vieths S, Luttkopf D, Heuschmann P, Wuthrich B: Celery allergy confirmed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge: a clinical study in 32 subjects with a history of adverse reaction to celery root. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:373–378.
  32. Luttkopf D, Ballmer-Weber B, Wuthrich B, Vieths S: Celery allergens in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:390–399.
  33. Ballmer- Weber B, Wuthrich B, Wangorsch A, Foetisch K, Altmann F, Vieths S: Carrot allergy: double-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenge and identification of allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:301–307.
  34. Kleine-Tebbe J, Wangorsch A, Vogel L, Crowell DN, Haustein UF, Vieths S: Severe oral allergy syndrome and anaphylactic reactions caused by a Bet v 1-related PR-10 protein in soybean, SAM22. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:797–804.
  35. Ballmer-Weber BK, Hoffmann A, Wuthrich B, Luttkopf D, Pompei A, Wangorsch A, Kastner M, Vieths S: Influence of food processing on the allergenicity of celery: DBPCFC with celery spice and cooked celery in patients with celery allergy. Allergy 2002;57:228–235.
  36. Hansen KS, Ballmer-Weber BK, Luttkopf D, Skov PS, Wuthrich B, Bindslev-Jensen C, Vieths S, Poulsen LK: Roasted hazelnuts – Allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Allergy 2003;58:132–138.
  37. Van Ree R, van Leeuwen WA, Akkerdaas JH, Aalberse RC: How far can we simplify in vitro diagnostics for Fagales tree pollen allergy? A study with three whole pollen extracts and purified natural and recombinant allergens. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:848–855.
  38. Valenta R, Duchene M, Pettenburger K, Sillaber C, Valent P, Bettelheim P, Breitenbach M, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Identification of profilin as a novel pollen allergen; IgE autoreactivity in sensitized individuals. Science 1991;253:557–560.
  39. Van Ree R, Voitenko V, van Leeuwen WA, Aalberse RC: Profilin is a cross-reactive allergen in pollen and vegetable foods. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1992;98:97–104.
  40. Valenta R, Duchene M, Ebner C, Valent P, Sillaber C, Deviller P, Ferreira F, Tejkl M, Edelmann H, Kraft D, Scheiner O: Profilins constitute a novel family of functional plant pan- allergens. J Exp Med 1992;175:377–385.
  41. Pauli G, Oster JP, Deviller P, Heiss S, Bessot JC, Susani M, Ferreira F, Kraft D, Valenta R: Skin testing with recombinant allergens rBet v 1 and birch profilin, rBet v 2: diagnostic value for birch pollen and associated allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:1100–1109.
  42. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S: Parietaria profilin shows only little cross-reactivity with birch and grass profilins. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2004;133:121–124.
  43. Wensing M, Akkerdaas J, van Leeuwen WA, Stapel SO, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, Alberse RC, Bast BJ, Knulst AC, van Ree R: IgE to Bet v 1 and profilin: cross-reactivity patterns and clinical relevance. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:435–442.
  44. Vallier P, Dechamp C, Valenta R, Vial O, Deviller P: Purification and characterization of an allergen from celery immunochemically related to an allergen present in several other plant species. Identification as a profilin. Clin Exp Allergy 1992;22:774–782.
  45. Jordan-Wagner DL, Whisman BA, Goetz DW: Cross-allergenicity among celery, cucumber, carrot, and watermelon. Ann Allergy 1993;71:70–79.
  46. Vieths S, Jankiewicz A, Wuthrich B, Baltes W: Immunoblot study of IgE binding allergens in celery roots. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;75:48–55.
  47. Ebner C, Jensen-Jarolim E, Leitner A, Breitenbach H: Characterization of allergens in plant-derived spices: Apiaceae spices, pepper (Piperaceae), and paprika (bell pepper, Solanaceae). Allergy 1998;53:52–54.
  48. Van Ree R, Fernandez-Rivas M, Cuevas M, van Wijngaarden M, Alberse RC: Pollen-related allergy to peach and apple: an important role for profilin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:726–734.
  49. Petersen A, Vieths S, Aulepp H, Schlaak M, Becker WM: Ubiquitous structures responsible for cross-reactivity between tomato fruit and grass pollen allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:805–815.
  50. Fritsch R, Ebner H, Kraft D, Ebner C: Food allergy to pumpkin seed; characterization of the allergens. Allergy 1997;52:335–337.
  51. Reindl J, Anliker MD, Karamloo F, Vieths S, Wuthrich B: Allergy caused by ingestion of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo): characterization of allergens and cross-reactivity to pollen and other foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:379–385.
  52. Fah J, Wuthrich B, Vieths S: Anaphylactic reaction to lychee fruit: evidence for sensitization to profilin. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25:1018–1023.
  53. Reindl J, Rihs HP, Scheurer S, Wangorsch A, Haustein D, Vieths S: IgE reactivity to profilin in pollen-sensitized subjects with adverse reactions to banana and pineapple. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128:105–114.
  54. Anliker MD, Reindl J, Vieths S, Wuthrich B: Allergy caused by the ingestion of persimmon (Diospyros kaki): detection of specific IgE and cross-reactivity to profilin and carbohydrate determinants. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:718–723.
  55. Rodriguez-Perez R, Crespo JF, Rodriguez J, Salcedo G: Profilin is a relevant melon allergen susceptible to pepsin digestion in patients with oral allergy syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:634–639.
  56. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S, Zanoni D, Barocci F, Caldironi G: Detection of clinical markers of sensitization to profilin in patients allergic to plant-derived foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:427–432.
  57. Pauli G, Bessot JC, Dietemann-Molard A, Braun PA, Thierry R: Celery sensitivity: clinical and immunological correlations with pollen allergy. Clin Allergy 1985;15:273–279.
  58. Stager J, Wuthrich B, Johansson SGO: Spice allergy in celery-sensitive patients. Allergy 1992;46:475–478.
  59. Heiss S, Fischer S, Muller WD, Weber B, Hirschwehr R, Spitzauer S, Kraft D, Valenta R: Identification of a 60-kDa cross-reactive allergen in pollen and plant-derived food. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:938–947.
  60. Bauer L, Ebner C, Hirschwehr R, Wuthrich B, Pichler C, Fritsch R, Scheiner O, Kraft D: IgE cross-reactivity between birch pollen, mugwort pollen and celery is due to at least three distinct cross-reacting allergens: immunoblot investigation of the birch-mugwort-celery syndrome. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:1161–1170.
  61. Luttkopf D, Ballmer-Weber BK, Wuthrich B, Vieths S: Celery allergens in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:390–399.
  62. Bublin M, Radauer C, Wilson IBH, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K: Cross-reactive N-glycans of Api g 5, a high molecular weight glycoprotein allergen from celery, are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients. FASEB J 2003;17:1697–1699.
  63. Foetisch K, Westphal S, Lauer I, Retzek M, Altmann F, Kolarich D, et al: Biological activity of IgE specific for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:889–896.
  64. Breiteneder H, Mills ENC: Molecular properties of food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:14–23.
  65. Garcia-Ortiz JC, Cosmes Marin P, Lopez-Asunsolo A: Allergy to foods in patients monosensitized to Artemisia pollen. Allergy 1996;51:927–931.
  66. Bousquet J, Campos J, Michel FB: Food intolerance to honey. Allergy 1984;39:73–76.
  67. Subiza J, Subiza JL, Hinojosa M, Garcia R, Jerez M, Subiza E: Anaphylactic reaction after the ingestion of chamomile tea: a study of cross-reactivity with other Compositae pollens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;84:353–358.
  68. Pastorello EA, Ortolani C, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Ispano M, et al: Allergenic cross-reactivity among peach, apricot, plum, cherry in patients with oral allergy syndrome. An in vivo and in vitro study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:699–707.
  69. Sanchez-Monge R, Lombardero M, Garcia-Selles FJ, Barber D, Salcedo G: Lipid transfer proteins are relevant allergens in fruit allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:514–519.
  70. Diaz-Perales A, Lombardero M, Sanchez-Monge R, Garcia-Selles FJ, Pernas M, Fernandez-Rivas M, Barber D, Salcedo G: Lipid transfer proteins as potential plant panallergens: cross-reactivity among proteins of Artemisia pollen, Castanea nut, and Rosaceae fruits, with different IgE-binding capacities. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:1403–1410.
  71. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, de Vries SC, et al: Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;122:20–32.
  72. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S, Calderoni G, Barocci F, van Ree R: Immunological cross-reactivity between lipid transfer proteins from botanically unrelated plant-derived foods: a clinical study. Allergy 2002;57:900–906.
  73. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S: Relationship between peach lipid transfer protein IgE levels and hypersensitivity to non-Rosaceae vegetable foods in patients allergic to lipid transfer protein. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;92:268–272.
  74. Brenna O, Pompei C, Ortolani C, Pravettoni V, Farioli L, Pastorello EA: Technological processes to decrease the allergenicity of peach juice and nectar. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:493–497.
  75. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S, Falagiani S: Analysis of the heat stability of lipid transfer protein from apple. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:1009–1011.
  76. Pastorello EA, Pompei C, Pravettoni V, Farioli L, Calamari AM, Scibilia J, Robino AM, Conti A, et al: Lipid transfer protein is the major maize allergen maintaining IgE-binding activity after cooking at 100 degrees C, as demonstrated in anaphylactic patients and patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:775–783.
  77. Scheurer S, Lauer I, Foetisch K, Moncin MS, Retzek M, Hartz C, et al: Strong allergenicity of Pru p 3, the lipid transfer protein from cherry, is related to high stability against thermal processing and digestion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:900–907.
  78. Fernandez-Rivas M, van Ree R, Cuevas M: Allergy to Rosaceae fruits without related pollinosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:728–733.
  79. Lleonart R, Cisterò A, Carreira J, Batista A, Moscoso del Prado J: Food allergy: identification of the major IgE-binding component of the peach (Prunus persica). Ann Allergy 1992;69:120–130.
  80. Escribano MM, Munoz FJ, Velazquez E, Gonzalez J, Conde J: Anaphylactic reaction caused by cherry ingestion. Allergy 1996;51:756–757.
  81. Asero R: Detection and clinical characterization of patients with oral allergy syndrome caused by stable allergens in Rosaceae and nuts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83:377–383.
  82. Schocker F, Luttkopf D, Scheurer S, Petersen A, Cistero-Bahima A, Enrique E, San Miguel-Moncin M, Akkerdaas J, van Ree R, Vieths S, Becker WM: Recombinant lipid transfer protein Cor a 8 from hazelnut: a new tool for in vitro diagnosis of potentially severe hazelnut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:141–147.
  83. Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Robino AM, Scibilia J, Fortunato D, Conti A, Borgonovo L, Bengtsson A, Ortolani C: Lipid transfer protein and vicilin are important walnut allergens in patients not allergic to pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:908–914.
  84. Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Ispano M, et al: The maize major allergen, which is responsible for food-induced allergic reactions, is a lipid transfer protein. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:744–751.
  85. Curioni A, Santucci B, Cristaudo A, Canistraci C, Pietravalle M, Limonato B, et al: Urticaria from beer: an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to a 10-kDa protein derived from barley. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:407–413.
  86. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S, van Ree R: A case of allergy to beer showing cross-reactivity between lipid transfer proteins. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;87:65–67.
  87. Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Ortolani C, Fortunato D, Giuffrida MG, et al: Identification of grape and wine allergens as an endochitinase 4, a lipid transfer protein and a thaumatin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:350–359.
  88. Navarro AM, Orta JC, Sanchez MC, Delgado J, Barber D, Lombardero M: Primary sensitization to Morus alba. Allergy 1997;52:1144–1145.
  89. Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, the SAFE consortium: The SAFE project: ‘Plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe’. An EC-funded study. Allergy 2005;60:436–442.
  90. Fernandez-Rivas M, Cuevas M: Peels of Rosaceae fruits have a higher allergenicity than pulps. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:1239–1247.
  91. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Casarini M, Falagiani P: Allergy to nonspecific lipid transfer proteins in Rosaceae: a comparative study of different in vivo diagnostic methods. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;87:68–71.
  92. Asero R: Is walnut really a birch pollen-related fruit? Allergy 1998;53:908–909.
  93. Hsieh LS, Moos M, Lin Y: Characterization of apple 18 and 31 kDa allergens by microsequencing and evaluation of their content during storage and ripening. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:960–970.
  94. Inschlag C, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, O’Riordain G, Ahorn H, Ebner C, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H: Biochemical characterization of Pru a 2, a 23-kDa thaumatin-like protein representing a potential major allergen in cherry (Prunus avium). Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;116:22–28.
  95. Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Incorvaia C, et al: Identificazione di un allergene maggiore della ciliegia come proteina taumatino-simile. Giorn It Allergol Immunol Clin 1999;9:24–29.
  96. Jensen-Jarolim E, Santner B, Leitner A, Grimm R, Scheiner O, Ebner C, et al: Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) express allergens (profilin, pathogenesis-related protein P23 and Bet v 1) depending on the horticultural strain. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;116:103–109.
  97. Gavrovic-Jankulovic M, Cirkovic T, Vuckovic O, Atanaskovic-Markovic M, Petersen A, et al: Isolation and biochemical characterization of a thaumatin-like kiwi allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:805–810.
  98. Breteneder H: Thaumatin-like proteins – A new family of pollen and fruit allergens. Allergy 2004;59:479–481.
  99. Menendez-Arias L, Moneo I, Dominguez J, Rodriguez R: Primary structure of the major allergen from yellow mustard seeds, Sin a 1. Eur J Biochem 1988;177:159–166.
  100. Monsalve RI, Gonzalez de la Pena MA, Menendez-Aria L, Lopez-Ortin C, Villalba M, Rodriguez R: Characterization of a new oriental mustard (Brassica juncea) allergen Bra j 1: detection of an allergenic epitope. Biochem 1993;293:625–632.
  101. Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Ispano M, et al: Sensitization to the major allergen of Brazil nut is correlated with the clinical expression of allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:1021–1027.
  102. Teuber SS, Dandekar AM, Peterson WR, Sellers CL: Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 2S albumin seed storage protein precursor from English walnut (Juglans regia), a major food allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:807–814.
  103. Bashir ME, Hubatsch I, Leinenbach HP, Zappezauer M, Panzani RC, Hussein IH: Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, the allergenic 2S albumin storage proteins of Ricinus communis: complete primary structure and phylogenetic relationships. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;115:73–82.
  104. Pastorello EA, Varin E, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Ortolani C, Trambaioli C, et al: The major allergen of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) is a 2S albumin. J Chromatogr 2001;756:85–93.
  105. Beyer K, Bardina L, Grishina G, Sampson HA: Identification of sesame seed allergens by 2-dimensional proteomics and Edman sequencing: seed storage proteins as common food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:154–159.
  106. Kelly JD, Hlywka JJ, Hefle S: Identification of sunflower seed IgE-binding proteins. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;121:19–24.
  107. Kleber-Janke T, Crameri R, Appenzeller U, Schlaak M, Becker WM: Selective cloning of peanut allergens, including profilin and 2S albumins, by phage display technology. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;119:265–274.
  108. Beyer K, Grishina G, Bardina L, Grishin A, Sampson AH: Identification of an 11S globulin as a major food allergen in hazelnut-induced systemic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:517–523.
  109. Axelsson IG, Ihre E, Zetterstrom O: Anaphylactic reactions to sunflower seed. Allergy 1994;49:517–520.
  110. Ordman D: An outbreak of bronchial asthma in South Africa affecting more than 200 persons, caused by castor bean dust from an oil-processing factory. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1955;7:10–24.
  111. Nordlee JA, Taylor SL, Townsend JA, Thomas LA, Bush RK: Identification of a Brazil nut allergen in transgenic soybeans. N Eng J Med 1996;334:688–692.
  112. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Antoniotti PL, Falagiani P: A case of sesame seed-induced anaphylaxis. Allergy 1999;54:526–533.
  113. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S: Allergenic similarities of 2S albumins. Allergy 2002;57:62–63.
  114. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S: Walnut-induced anaphylaxis with cross-reactivity to hazelnut and Brazil nut. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:358–360.
  115. Burks AW, Shin D, Cockrell G, Stanley JS, Holm RM, Bannon G: Mapping and mutational analysis of the IgE-binding epitopes on Ara h 1, a legume vicilin protein and a major allergen in peanut hypersensitivity. Eur J Biochem 1997;245:334–339.
  116. Sanchez-Monge R, Pascual C, Diaz-Perales A, Fernandez-Crespo J, Martin-Esteban M, Salcedo G: Isolation and characterization of relevant allergens from boiled lentils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:955–961.
  117. Lopez-Torrejon G, Salcedo G, Martin-Esteban M, Diaz-Perales A, Pascual CY, Sanchez-Monge R: Len c 1, a major allergen and vicilin from lentil seeds: protein isolation and cDNA cloning. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:1208–1215.
  118. Louer I, Foetisch K, Kolarich D, Ballmer-Weber BK, Conti A, Altmann F, Vieths S, Scheurer S: Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) vicilin, Cor a 11: molecular characterization of a glycoprotein and its allergenic activity. Biochem J 2004;383:527–534.
  119. Teuber SS, Jarvis KC, Dandekar AM, Peterson WR, Anson AA: Identification and cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a vicilin-like protein, Jug r 2, from English walnut kernel (Juglans regia), a major food allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:1311–1320.
  120. Wang R, Robotham JM, Teuber SS, Tawde P, Sathe SK, Roux KH: Ana o 1, a cashew (Anacardium occidentale) allergen of the vicilin seed storage protein family. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:160–166.
  121. Koppelman SJ, Knol EF, Vlooswijk RA, Wensing M, Knulst AC, Hefle SL, Gruppen H, Piersma S: Peanut allergen Ara h 3: isolation from peanuts and biochemical characterization. Allergy 2003;58:1144–1151.
  122. Wang F, Robotham JM, Teuber SS, Sathe SK, Roux KH: Ana o 2, a major cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut allergen of the legumin family. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;132:27–39.
  123. Roux KH, Teuber SS, Sathe SK: Tree nut allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;131:234–244.
  124. Teuber SS, Comstock SS, Sathe SK, Roux KH: Tree nut allergy. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2003;3:54–61.
  125. Wensing M, Knulst AC, Piersma S, O’Kane F, Knol EF, Koppelman SJ: Patients with anaphylaxis to pea can have peanut allergy caused by cross-reactive IgE to vicilin (Ara h 1). J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:420–424.
  126. Sicherer S: Clinical implications of cross-reactive food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:881–890.
  127. Teuber SS, Peterson WR: Systemic reaction to coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in two subjects with tree nut hypersensitivity and demonstration of cross-reactivity to legumin-like seed storage proteins: new coconut and walnut food allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:1180–1185.
  128. Nguyen SA, More DR, Whisman BA, Hagan LL: Cross-reactivity between coconut and hazelnut proteins in a patient with coconut anaphylaxis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;92:281–284.
  129. De Leon MP, Glaspole JN, Drew AC, Rolland JM, O’Heir RE, Suphioglu C: Immunological analysis of the allergenic cross-reactivity between peanut and tree nuts. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:1273–1280.
  130. Fernandez C, Fiandor A, Martinez Garate A, Martinez-Quesada Y: Allergy to pistachio: cross-reactivity between pistachio and other Anacardiaceae. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25:1254–1259.
  131. Ewan PW: Clinical study of peanut and nut allergy in 62 consecutive patients. New features and associations. BMJ 1996;312:1074–1078.
  132. Akkerdaas JH, Wensing M, Knulst AC, Krebitz M, Breiteneder H, et al: How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents? Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;132:132–140.
  133. Jenkins JA, Griffith-Jones S, Shewry PR, Breiteneder H, Mills ENC: Structural relatedness of plant food allergens with specific reference to cross-reactive allergens: an in silico analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:163–170.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50