Cover

Immunology of Gametes and Embryo Implantation

Editor(s): Markert U.R. (Jena) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 88, No. , 2005
Section title: Paper
Markert UR (ed): Immunology of Gametes and Embryo Implantation. Chem Immunol Allergy. Basel, Karger, 2005, vol 88, pp 64-79
(DOI:10.1159/000087821)

T Helper 1 and 2 Immune Responses in Relationship to Pregnancy, Nonpregnancy, Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions and Infertility of Repeated Implantation Failures

Kwak-Kim J. · Gilman-Sachs A. · Kim C.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, Ill., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 8/19/2005
Cover Date: 2005

Number of Print Pages: 16
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-7951-3 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-318-01233-0 (Online)

Abstract

It is becoming clear that during each developmental stage of pregnancy, different immunological conditions exist and may even be necessary for success. The widely accepted T helper (Th) 1 and 2 concept has some limitations if applied to the various developmental stages of pregnancy. During the implantation period, a multidirectional cytokine network is necessary with the blastocyst producing cytokines and other factors and the endometrium synthesizing factors necessary for the embryonic development. Improper immune responses and an unbalanced cytokine network may be related to implantation failures, pregnancy losses and obstetrical complications. A propensity to Th1 immune responses has been reported in these conditions systemically or locally. The presence of elevated Th1:Th2 cell ratios, high concentration of Th1 cytokines secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, elevated NK cell cytotoxicity and levels, and emergence of various autoantibodies are the supporting evidence. The underlying immunopathology for the preponderance of Th1 is unknown. Genetic, environmental, and hormonal etiologies need to be explored further in the future. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of what is known about the immune response in women with reproductive failures and provide an update of some of the most recent findings in this field.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 8/19/2005
Cover Date: 2005

Number of Print Pages: 16
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-7951-3 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-318-01233-0 (Online)


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.