Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Table of Contents
Vol. 26, No. 2, 2006
Issue release date: February 2006
Section title: Original Paper
Free Access
Neuroepidemiology 2006;26:93–101

The Relation of Education and Income to Cognitive Function among Professional Women

Lee S.a · Buring J.E.b-d · Cook N.R.b · Grodstein F.c-e
aDepartment of Health and Behavioral Sciences, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colo., bDepartment of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, cDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, dDivision of Aging and eChanning Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA
email Corresponding Author

Sunmin Lee, ScD

Department of Health and Behavioral Sciences, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Campus Box 188, PO Box 173364

Denver, CO 80217-3364 (USA)

Tel. +1 303 556 6793, Fax +1 303 556 8501, E-Mail sunmin.lee@cudenver.edu


  1. Farmer ME, Kittner SJ, Rae DS, Bartko JJ, Regier DA: Education and change in cognitive function. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5:1–7.
  2. Evans DA, Beckett LA, Albert MS, Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Funkenstein HH, Taylor JO: Level of education and change in cognitive function in a community population of older persons. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3:71–77.
  3. Lyketsos CG, Chen L-S, Anthony JC: Cognitive decline in adulthood: an 11.5-year follow-up of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:58–65.
  4. Gallacher JE, Elwood PC, Hopkinson C, Patrick MA, Rabbitt PMA, Stollery BT, Sweetnam PM, Brayne C, Huppert FA: Cognitive function in the Caerphilly study: associations with age, social class, education and mood. Eur J Epidemiol 1999;15:161–169.
  5. Cagney KA, Lauderdale DS: Education, wealth, and cognitive function in later life. J Gerontol Psychol Sci 2002;57B:163–172.
  6. Scherr P, Albert M, Funkenstein H, Cook N, Hennekens C, Branch L, White L, Taylor J, Evans D: Correlates of cognitive function in an elderly community population. Am J Epidemiol 1988;128:1084–1101.
  7. Alvarado BE, Zunzunegui M-V, Del Ser T, and Beland F: Cognitive decline is related to education and occupation in a Spanish elderly cohort. Aging Clin Exp Res 2002;14:132–142.
  8. Lee S, Kawachi I, Berkman LF, Grodstein F: Education, other socioeconomic indicators, and cognitive function in older women. Am J Epidemiol 2003;157:712–720.
  9. Seeman TE, Huang M, Bretsky P, Crimmins E, Launer L, Guralnik JM: Education and APOE-e4 in longitudinal cognitive decline: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2005;60:P74–P83.
  10. Buring JE, Hennekens CH: The Women’s Health Study: Summary of the Study Design. J Myocardial Ischemia 1992;4:27–29.
  11. Brandt J, Spencer M, Folstein MF: The telephone interview for cognitive status. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1988;1:111–117.
  12. Mufson EJ, Chen E-Y, Cochran EJ, Beckett LA, Bennett DA, Kordower JH: Entorhinal cortex beta-amyloid load in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Exp Neurol 1999;158:469–490.
  13. Morris JC, Heyman A, Mohs RC, Hughes JP, van Belle G, Fillenbaum G, Mellits ED, Clark C: The consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD). Part 1. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1989;39:1159–1165.
  14. Ganguli M: The use of screening instruments for the detection of dementia. Neuroepidemiology 1997;16:271–280.
  15. Albert MS: How does education affect cognitive function? Ann Epidemiol 1995;5:76–78.
  16. Dufouil C, Alperovitch A, Tzourio C: Influence of education on the relationship between white matter lesions and cognition. Neurology 2003;60:831–836.
  17. Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Schneider JA, Evans DA, Mendes de Leon CF, Arnold SE, Barnes LL, Bienias JL: Education modifies the relation of AD pathology to level of cognitive function in older persons. Neurology 2003;60:1909–1915.
  18. Scarmeas N, Zarahn E, Andersen KE, Habeck CG, Hilton J, Flynn J, Marmot MG, Bell KL, Sackeim HA, Van Heertum RL, Moeller JR, Stern Y: Association of life activities with cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:359–365.
  19. Wilson RS, Bennett DA, Beckett LA, Morris MC, Gilley DW, Bienias JL, Scherr PA, Evans DA: Cognitive activity in older persons from a geographically defined population. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 1999;54:P155–P160.
  20. Kliegel M, Zimprich D, Rott C: Life-long intellectual activities mediate the predictive effect of early education on cognitive impairment in centenarians: a retrospective study. Aging Men Health 2004;8:430–437.
  21. Wang H, Karp A, Winbald B, Fratiglioni L: Late-life engagement in social and leisure activities is associated with a decreased risk of dementia: a longitudinal study from the Kungsholmen Project. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:1081–1087.
  22. Verghese J, Lipton RB, Katz MJ, Hall CB, Derby CA, Kuslansky G, Ambrose AF, Sliwinski M, Buschke H: Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2508–2516.