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Erythrocyte Membrane Phospholipid Composition as a Biomarker of Dietary Fat

Fuhrman B.J.a · Barba M.a, b · Krogh V.c · Micheli A.d · Pala V.c · Lauria R.b · Chajes V.e · Riboli E.f · Sieri S.c · Berrino F.c · Muti P.a, g
aDepartment of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, N.Y., USA; bDepartment of Endocrinology and Medical Oncology, Federico II Medical School of Naples, Naples, cUnita’ Operativa di Epidemiologia, and dUnità di Epidemiologia Descrittiva e Programmazione Sanitaria, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan, Italy; eLaboratoire de Biologie des Tumeurs, Universite R. Rabelais, Tours, and fUnit of Nutrition and Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; gNational Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy Ann Nutr Metab 2006;50:95–102 (DOI:10.1159/000090496)

Abstract

Background/Aims: In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the relationship between erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition and dietary fat; we also investigated roles of menopausal status, age, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in interindividual variation of the biomarker. Methods: Study participants were 204 women, aged 39–65 years, drawn from the ORDET cohort and selected as controls in a study of breast cancer. Membrane composition was assessed using capillary gas chromatography. Dietary fat composition was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. Results: In pre- and postmenopausal women, erythrocyte membrane phospholipid levels of linoleic acid, oleic acid, and mono-unsaturated fatty acids were significantly associated with corresponding dietary measures (partial correlation coefficients: 0.23 and 0.39; 0.45 and 0.47; 0.40 and 0.48; respectively, in pre- and postmenopausal women). Among postmenopausal women, membrane poly-unsaturated fatty acids were correlated with the corresponding dietary measure (r = 0.39, p < 0.001). Membrane eicosapentanoic and docosahexanoic acid levels were significantly correlated with intake of fish/shell fish : r = 0.21 and r = 0.43 (premenopausal), and r = 0.41 and r = 0.44 (postmenopausal). Age, BMI and WHR had independent effects on membrane lipid composition. Age was associated with delta-6 desaturase activity in postmenopausal women (r = 0.25, p < 0.05). BMI was negatively associated with delta-9 desaturase activity in both pre- and postmenopausal women (r = –0.29, p = 0.01 and r = –0.22, p < 0.01, respectively). WHR was negatively associated with delta-5 desaturase activity in pre-menopausal women (r = –024, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Erythrocyte membrane levels of some specific fatty acids can be used as biomarkers of these fatty acids as proportions of dietary fat.

 

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