Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major psychoses. In this paper, the T–50C polymorphism of the GSK-3β gene has been studied in patients with schizophrenia (n = 432), patients with bipolar disorder (n = 416) and in a healthy control group (n = 408). Consensus diagnosis by at least two psychiatrists was made for each patient, according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Genotypes were established by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We have found a trend towards an association for the C allele in the whole group of schizophrenic patients (p = 0.088) and for the heterozygous T/C genotype of bipolar patients (0.095). Significant differences of genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the T–50C polymorphism were found in the female group of bipolar II patients (p = 0.015 for genotypes and p = 0.009 for alleles). In conclusion, this polymorphism may be associated with female gender in bipolar II disorder.
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