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Vol. 15, No. 2, 2006
Issue release date: February 2006
Open Access Gateway
Med Princ Pract 2006;15:111–113
(DOI:10.1159/000090914)

Detection of Serum Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus in ‘False-Seronegative’ Blood Donors in Oman

Alnaqy A. · Al-Harthy S. · Kaminski G. · Al-Dhahry S.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Oman
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Objective: To detect hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies in seronegative donors by disruption of the immune complexes (ICs). Subjects and Methods: HCV antibody detection was carried out on 600 seronegative donors following an IC dissociation assay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was then performed on the positive results. Results: Nine of the 600 samples (1.5%) were positive for IC-dissociated HCV antibodies. Of the 9 only 3 antibody-positive samples had detectable HCV RNA. Conclusion: Screening for antibodies to HCV in combination with PCR appears to be the safest way to reduce the residual risk of HCV in blood transfusion.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Antibodies
  • Immune complexes
  • Blood donors, seronegative

 goto top of outline Abstract

Objective: To detect hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies in seronegative donors by disruption of the immune complexes (ICs). Subjects and Methods: HCV antibody detection was carried out on 600 seronegative donors following an IC dissociation assay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was then performed on the positive results. Results: Nine of the 600 samples (1.5%) were positive for IC-dissociated HCV antibodies. Of the 9 only 3 antibody-positive samples had detectable HCV RNA. Conclusion: Screening for antibodies to HCV in combination with PCR appears to be the safest way to reduce the residual risk of HCV in blood transfusion.

Copyright © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Choo Q, Weiner A, Overby L, Kuo G, Houghton M, Bradley D: Hepatitis C virus: the major causative agent of viral non-A, non-B hepatitis. Br Med Bull 1990;46:423–441.
  2. Alter M: Epidemiology of hepatitis C in the West. Semin Liver Dis 1995;15:5–14.
  3. Van der Poel C, Cuypers H, Reesink H: Hepatitis C virus six years on. Lancet 1994;344:1475–1479.
  4. Pawlotsky J, Bastie A, Pellet C, Remire J, Darthuy F, Wolfe L, Sayada C, Duval J, Dhumeaux D: Significance of indeterminate third-generation hepatitis C virus recombinant immunoblot assay. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:80–83.
  5. Hijikata M, Shimizu Y, Kato H, Iwamoto A, Shih J, Alter H, Purcell R, Yoshikura H: Equilibrium centrifugation studies of hepatitis C virus: evidence for circulating immune complexes. J Virol 1993;67:1953–1958.
  6. Sansonno D, Iacobelli A, Cornacchiulo V, Lauletta G, Distasi M, Gatti P, Dammacco F: Immunochemical and biomolecular studies of circulating immune complexes isolated from patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Eur J Clin Invest 1996;26:465–475.
  7. Troisi C, Hollinger F: Detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in seronegative patients using an immune complex dissociation assay. J Viral Hepat 1997;4:383–386.
  8. Chomczynski P, Sacchi N: Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 1987;162:156–159.
  9. Ruster B, Zeuzem S, Roth W: Quantification of hepatitis C virus RNA by competitive reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction using a modified hepatitis C virus RNA transcript. Anal Biochem 1995;224:597–600.
  10. Paydas S, Aksu H, Saglikery Y, Gurcay A: Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among hemodialysis patients. J Islamic Acad Sci 1992;5:145–146.
  11. Busch M, Korelitz J, Kleinman S, Lee S, AuBuchon J, Schreiber G: Declining value of alanine aminotransferase in screening of blood donors to prevent posttransfusion hepatitis B and C virus infection. The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. Transfusion 1995;35:903–910.
  12. Schreiber G, Busch M, Kleinman S, Korelitz J: The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1685–1690.
  13. Villa E, Ferretti L, DePalma M, Melegari M, Scaglioni PP, Trande P, Vecchi C, Fratti N, Manenti F: HCV RNA in serum of asymptomatic blood donors involved in post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH). J Hepatol 1991;13:256–259.
  14. Sugitani M, Inchauspe G, Shindo M, Prince A: Sensitivity of serological assays to identify blood donors with hepatitis C viremia. Lancet 1992;339:1018–1019.
  15. Beld M, Penning M, McMorrow M, Gorgels J, van den Hoek A, Goudsmit J: Different hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA load profiles following seroconversion among injecting drug users without correlation with HCV genotype and serum alanine aminotransferase levels. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:872–877.
  16. Muller-Breitkreutz K, Baylis S, Allain J: Nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of blood-borne viruses. Vox Sang 1999;76:194–199.
  17. Davis G, Lau J, Urdea M, Neuwald P, Wilber J, Lindsay K, Perrillo R, Albrecht J: Quantitative detection of hepatitis C virus RNA with a solid-phase signal amplification method: definition of optimal conditions for specimen collection and clinical application in interferon-treated patients. Hepatology 1994;19:1337–1341.
  18. Busch M, Wilber J, Johnson P, Tobler L, Evans C: Impact of specimen handling and storage on detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. Transfusion 1992;32:420–425.
  19. Kleinman S, Busch M, Korelitz J, Schreiber G: The incidence/window period model and its use to assess the risk of transfusion- transmitted HIV and HCV infection. Transfus Med Rev 1997;11:155–172.
  20. Laperche S, Le Marrec N, Simon N, Bouchardeau F, Defer C, Maniez-Montreuil M, Levayer T, Zappitelli JP, Lefrere JJ: A new HCV core antigen assay based on disassociation of immune complexes: an alternative to molecular biology in the diagnosis of early HCV infection. Transfusion 2003;43:958–962.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Adel Alnaqdy
College of Medicine and Health Sciences
PO Box 35
Al-Khod 123 (Oman)
Tel. +968 2451 5147, Fax +968 2451 3419, E-Mail aalwan@squ.edu.om


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: May 3, 2005
Accepted: July 3, 2005
Number of Print Pages : 3
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 20


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice (International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre)

Vol. 15, No. 2, Year 2006 (Cover Date: February 2006)

Journal Editor: Al-Zaid, N.S. (Kuwait)
ISSN: 1011–7571 (print), 1423–0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MPP


Open Access License / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Objective: To detect hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies in seronegative donors by disruption of the immune complexes (ICs). Subjects and Methods: HCV antibody detection was carried out on 600 seronegative donors following an IC dissociation assay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was then performed on the positive results. Results: Nine of the 600 samples (1.5%) were positive for IC-dissociated HCV antibodies. Of the 9 only 3 antibody-positive samples had detectable HCV RNA. Conclusion: Screening for antibodies to HCV in combination with PCR appears to be the safest way to reduce the residual risk of HCV in blood transfusion.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Adel Alnaqdy
College of Medicine and Health Sciences
PO Box 35
Al-Khod 123 (Oman)
Tel. +968 2451 5147, Fax +968 2451 3419, E-Mail aalwan@squ.edu.om


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: May 3, 2005
Accepted: July 3, 2005
Number of Print Pages : 3
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 20


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice (International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre)

Vol. 15, No. 2, Year 2006 (Cover Date: February 2006)

Journal Editor: Al-Zaid, N.S. (Kuwait)
ISSN: 1011–7571 (print), 1423–0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MPP


Open Access License / Drug Dosage

Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Choo Q, Weiner A, Overby L, Kuo G, Houghton M, Bradley D: Hepatitis C virus: the major causative agent of viral non-A, non-B hepatitis. Br Med Bull 1990;46:423–441.
  2. Alter M: Epidemiology of hepatitis C in the West. Semin Liver Dis 1995;15:5–14.
  3. Van der Poel C, Cuypers H, Reesink H: Hepatitis C virus six years on. Lancet 1994;344:1475–1479.
  4. Pawlotsky J, Bastie A, Pellet C, Remire J, Darthuy F, Wolfe L, Sayada C, Duval J, Dhumeaux D: Significance of indeterminate third-generation hepatitis C virus recombinant immunoblot assay. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:80–83.
  5. Hijikata M, Shimizu Y, Kato H, Iwamoto A, Shih J, Alter H, Purcell R, Yoshikura H: Equilibrium centrifugation studies of hepatitis C virus: evidence for circulating immune complexes. J Virol 1993;67:1953–1958.
  6. Sansonno D, Iacobelli A, Cornacchiulo V, Lauletta G, Distasi M, Gatti P, Dammacco F: Immunochemical and biomolecular studies of circulating immune complexes isolated from patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Eur J Clin Invest 1996;26:465–475.
  7. Troisi C, Hollinger F: Detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in seronegative patients using an immune complex dissociation assay. J Viral Hepat 1997;4:383–386.
  8. Chomczynski P, Sacchi N: Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 1987;162:156–159.
  9. Ruster B, Zeuzem S, Roth W: Quantification of hepatitis C virus RNA by competitive reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction using a modified hepatitis C virus RNA transcript. Anal Biochem 1995;224:597–600.
  10. Paydas S, Aksu H, Saglikery Y, Gurcay A: Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among hemodialysis patients. J Islamic Acad Sci 1992;5:145–146.
  11. Busch M, Korelitz J, Kleinman S, Lee S, AuBuchon J, Schreiber G: Declining value of alanine aminotransferase in screening of blood donors to prevent posttransfusion hepatitis B and C virus infection. The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. Transfusion 1995;35:903–910.
  12. Schreiber G, Busch M, Kleinman S, Korelitz J: The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1685–1690.
  13. Villa E, Ferretti L, DePalma M, Melegari M, Scaglioni PP, Trande P, Vecchi C, Fratti N, Manenti F: HCV RNA in serum of asymptomatic blood donors involved in post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH). J Hepatol 1991;13:256–259.
  14. Sugitani M, Inchauspe G, Shindo M, Prince A: Sensitivity of serological assays to identify blood donors with hepatitis C viremia. Lancet 1992;339:1018–1019.
  15. Beld M, Penning M, McMorrow M, Gorgels J, van den Hoek A, Goudsmit J: Different hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA load profiles following seroconversion among injecting drug users without correlation with HCV genotype and serum alanine aminotransferase levels. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:872–877.
  16. Muller-Breitkreutz K, Baylis S, Allain J: Nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of blood-borne viruses. Vox Sang 1999;76:194–199.
  17. Davis G, Lau J, Urdea M, Neuwald P, Wilber J, Lindsay K, Perrillo R, Albrecht J: Quantitative detection of hepatitis C virus RNA with a solid-phase signal amplification method: definition of optimal conditions for specimen collection and clinical application in interferon-treated patients. Hepatology 1994;19:1337–1341.
  18. Busch M, Wilber J, Johnson P, Tobler L, Evans C: Impact of specimen handling and storage on detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. Transfusion 1992;32:420–425.
  19. Kleinman S, Busch M, Korelitz J, Schreiber G: The incidence/window period model and its use to assess the risk of transfusion- transmitted HIV and HCV infection. Transfus Med Rev 1997;11:155–172.
  20. Laperche S, Le Marrec N, Simon N, Bouchardeau F, Defer C, Maniez-Montreuil M, Levayer T, Zappitelli JP, Lefrere JJ: A new HCV core antigen assay based on disassociation of immune complexes: an alternative to molecular biology in the diagnosis of early HCV infection. Transfusion 2003;43:958–962.