Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 77, No. 3, 2006
Issue release date: April 2006
Folia Primatol 2006;77:212–217

Evidence of Leopard Predation on Bonobos (Pan paniscus)

D’Amour D.E. · Hohmann G. · Fruth B.
aDepartment of Natural Resources Conservation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USA; bDepartment of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Current models of social organization assume that predation is one of the major forces that promotes group living in diurnal primates. As large body size renders some protection against predators, gregariousness of great apes and other large primate species is usually related to other parameters. The low frequency of observed cases of nonhuman predation on great apes seems to support this assumption. However, recent efforts to study potential predator species have increasingly accumulated direct and indirect evidence of predation by leopards (Panthera pardus) on chimpanzees and gorillas. The following report provides the first evidence of predation by a leopard on bonobos (Pan paniscus).

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Anderson D, Nordheim E, Boesch C, Moremond T (2002). Factors influencing fission-fusion grouping in chimpanzees in the Tai National Park, Cote d’Ivoire. In Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos (Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant L, eds.), pp 90–101. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  2. Bailey TN (1993). The African Leopard: Ecology and Behaviour of a Solitary Felid. New York, Columbia University Press.
  3. Boesch C (1991). The effects of leopard predation on grouping patterns in forest chimpanzees. Behavior 117: 20–242.
  4. Boesch C (2002). Behavioural diversity in Pan. In Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos (Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant L, eds.), pp 1–8. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  5. Boesch C, Boesch-Achermann H (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest: Behavioural Ecology and Evolution. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  6. Bshary R, Noe R (1997a). Red colobus and Diana monkeys provide mutual protection against predators. Animal Behavior 54:1461–1474.
  7. Bshary R, Noe R (1997b). Anti-predator behaviour of red colobus monkeys in the presence of chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41: 321–333.
  8. Chapman C, White F, Wrangham R (1994). A reevaluation of theory based on two similarly forested sites. In Chimpanzee Cultures (Wrangham RW, McGrew WC, de Waal F, Heltne PG, eds.), pp 41–57. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
  9. Cheney DL, Wrangham RW (1987). Predation. In Primate Societies (Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Stuhsaker TT, eds.), pp 227–239. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
  10. Cui L (2003). A note in an interaction between Rhinopithecus bieti and a buzzard at Baima Snow Mountain. Folia Primatologica 74: 51–53.
  11. Dind F (1995). Etude d’une population cible de léopards (Panthera pardus) en forêt tropicale humide (Parc National de Tai, Côte D’Ivoire). Travail de diplôme, Université de Lausanne.
  12. Doran D, Jungers W, Sugiyama Y, Fleagle J, Heesy C (2002). Multivariate and phylogenetic approach to understanding chimpanzee and bonobo behavioral diversity. In Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos (Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant L, eds.), pp 14–43. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  13. Furuichi T (2000). Possible case of predation on a chimpanzee by a leopard in the Petit Loango Reserve, Gabon. Pan African News 7: 2.
  14. Furuichi T, Idani G, Ihobe H, Kuroda S, Kitamura K, Mori A, Enomoto T, Okayasu N, Hashimoto C, Kano T (1998). Population dynamics of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba. International Journal of Primatology 19: 1029–1043.
  15. Goldsmith M (1999). Ecological constraints on the foraging efforts of western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology 20: 1–24.

    External Resources

  16. Goodall J (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  17. Hart JA, Katembo M, Punga K (1996). Diet, prey selection and ecological relations of leopard and golden cat in the Ituri forest, Zaire. African Journal of Ecology 34: 364–379.

    External Resources

  18. Henschel P (2005). Leopard food habits in the Lope National Park, Gabon, Central Africa. African Journal of Ecology 43: 21–28.

    External Resources

  19. Hiraiwa-Hasegawa M, Byrne RW, Takasaki H, Byrne JME (1986). Aggression towards large carnivores by wild chimpanzees of Tanzania. Folia Primatologica 47: 8–13.
  20. Hohmann G, Fruth B (2002). Dynamics in social organization of bonobos (Pan paniscus). In Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos (Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant L, eds.), pp 138–150. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  21. Hohmann G, Fruth B (2003). Lui Kotal – A new site for field research on bonobos in the Salonga National Park. Pan African News 10: 25–27.
  22. Isbell LA (1994). Predation on primates: ecological patterns and evolutionary consequences. Evolutionary Anthropology 3: 61–71.

    External Resources

  23. McGrew WC, Marchant L, Nishida T (1996). Great Ape Societies. New York, Cambridge University Press.
  24. Miller LE (2002). Eat or Be Eaten: Predator Sensitivity Foraging among Primates. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  25. Perry S, Manson J, Dower G, Wikberg E (2003). White-faced capuchins cooperate to rescue a groupmate from a Boa constrictor. Folia Primatologica 74: 109–111.
  26. Ray JC, Sunquist ME (2001). Trophic relations in a community of African rainforest carnivores. Oecologia 127: 395–408.
  27. Robbins MM, Bermejo M, Cipolletta C, Magliocca F, Parnell RJ, Stokes E (2004). Social structure and life-history patterns in western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Journal of Primatology 64: 145–159.
  28. Sakura O (1994). Factors affecting party size and composition of chimpanzees (Pantroglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea. International Journal of Primatology 15: 167–173.

    External Resources

  29. Schaller GB (1963). The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behavior. Chicago, Chicago University Press.
  30. Stanford CB (1996). The hunting ecology of wild chimpanzees: implications for the evolutionary ecology of Pliocene hominids. American Anthropology 98: 96–113.

    External Resources

  31. Treves A (1999). Has predation shaped the social systems of arboreal primates? International Journal of Primatology 20: 35–53.
  32. Tsukahara T (1993). Lions eat chimpanzees: the first evidence of predation by lions on wild chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 29: 1–11.
  33. Tutin CEG, McGrew WC, Baldwin PJ (1983). Social organization of savanna-dwelling chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, at Mt Assirik, Senegal. Primates 24: 154–173.

    External Resources

  34. van Schaik CP (1983). Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour 87: 120–144.
  35. van Schaik CP, Höstermann M (1994). Predation risk and the number of adult males in a primate group: a comparative test. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 35: 261–272.
  36. Vasquez MRO, Heymann EW (2001). Crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis) predation on infant tamarins (Sanguinus mystax and S. fuscicollis, Callitrichinae). Folia Primatologica 72: 301–303.
  37. Wrangham R (2002). The cost of sexual attraction: is there a trade-off in female Pan between sex appeal and received coercion? In Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos (Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant L, eds.), pp 204–215. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  38. Zuberbuhler K, Jenny D (2002). Leopard predation and primate evolution. Journal ofHuman Evolution 43: 873–886.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50