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Vol. 19, No. 2, 2006
Issue release date: May 2006
Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2006;19:78–88

In vivo Drug Screening in Human Skin Using Femtosecond Laser Multiphoton Tomography

König K. · Ehlers A. · Stracke F. · Riemann I.
aFraunhofer Institute of Biomedical Technology (IBMT), St. Ingbert, bFaculty of Mechatronics and Physics, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany

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The novel femtosecond laser multiphoton imaging system DermaInspect forin vivotomography of human skin was used to study the diffusion and intradermal accumulation of topically applied cosmetic and pharmaceutical components. Near-infrared 80 MHz picojoule femtosecond laser pulses were employed to excite endogenous fluorophores and fluorescent components of a variety of ointments via a two-photon excitation process. In addition, collagen was imaged by second harmonic generation. A high submicron spatial resolution and 50 ps temporal resolution was achieved using galvoscan mirrors and piezodriven focusing optics together with a time-correlated single-photon counting module with a fast microchannel plate detector. Individual intratissue cells, intracellular mitochondria, melanosomes, and the morphology of the nuclei as well as extracellular matrix elements were clearly visualized due to NAD(P)H, melanin, elastin, and collagen imaging and the calculation of fluorescence lifetime images. Nanoparticles and intratissue drugs were detected by two-photon-excited fluorescence. In addition, hydration effects and UV effects were studied by monitoring modifications of cellular morphology and autofluorescence. The system was used to observe the diffusion through the stratum corneum and the accumulation and release of functionalized nanoparticles along hair shafts and epidermal ridges. The novel noninvasive 4-D multiphoton tomography tool provides high-resolution optical biopsies with subcellular resolution, and offers for the first time the possibility to study in situthe diffusion through the skin barrier, long-term pharmacokinetics, and cellular response to cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


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