Delayed Transient Worsening of Neurological Deficits after Ischaemic StrokeDe Reuck J. · De Groote L. · Van Maele G.
Departments of aNeurology and bMedical Statistics, Stroke Unit, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
Background: Although the causes of stroke recurrence are well known, no particular study deals with the specific issue of late-onset transient worsening of the neurological deficit (TWND) after an ischaemic stroke. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study the aetiology of the TWNDs in 101 patients was compared to the causes of transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) in 115 patients. All patients had a full cardiovascular and neuroimaging examination according to current guidelines. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was performed when necessary. The diagnosis of inhibitory seizures was retained when the EEG showed periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges or intermittent rhythmic delta activities, or when the patient developed typical seizures afterwards. Results: Arterial hypertension and diabetes were more prevalent vascular risk factors in TWND patients. Small-vessel disease and inhibitory seizures were a more frequent cause of TWNDs than of TIAs. Extracranial large-vessel disease predominates in TIA patients. The global prevalence of cardiac diseases as cause of TIAs and TWNDs was the same, although severe ulcerous plaques of the aortic arch and patent foramen ovale with atrial septum aneurysm occurred more frequently in TWND patients. Conclusions: The most frequent causes of late-onset TWNDs were different from those of TIAs. Apart from repeated neuroimaging of the brain, exhaustive cardiac investigations and EEG are mandatory in TWND patients.
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