Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 66, No. 5, 2006
Issue release date: October 2006
Horm Res 2006;66:211–215
(DOI:10.1159/000094932)

Vitamin D Status and Its Relation to Age and Body Mass Index

Bischof M.G. · Heinze G. · Vierhapper H.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Background/Aims: While numerous studies have examined 25(OH)-vitamin D3 (25-D) concentrations and their relation to parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels there is only limited information on the interrelation between 25-D, 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25-D) and PTH. It was the aim of this study to assess the vitamin D endocrine system and its relation to age and body mass index (BMI). Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised a convenience sample of 483 adults which attended the endocrinology outpatient service of a university hospital in the years 2002–2004. Results: The mean concentrations of 25-D, 1,25-D, calcium and PTH were 21.0 ± 10.6 ng/ml, 47.9 ± 21.7 pg/ml, 9.48 ± 0.48 mg/dl and 51.0 ± 27.2 pg/ml, respectively. 25-D was related (p < 0.01) to BMI, age, PTH and 1,25-D. After correction for 25-D, we found no relation between BMI and 1,25-D. PTH was related (p < 0.01) to serum calcium, BMI, age and 1,25-D (p = 0015). There was a seasonal variation in both, 25-D and 1,25-D serum concentrations: 25-D levels were lowest in January and increased until July while the nadir and zenith of 1,25-D were found in April and October, respectively. Conclusion: Since BMI was negatively related to 25-D the prevalence of 25-D deficiency (<8.8 ng/ml) increased from 8.8% in subjects with BMI <30 kg/m2 to 15.0% in subjects with BMI >30 kg/m2. BMI, age and season should be taken into account when assessing a patients vitamin D status and more aggressive vitamin D supplementation should be considered for obese subjects.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Steenbock H: The induction of growth promoting and calcifying properties in a ration by exposure to light. Science 1924;60:224–225.
  2. DeLuca HF: Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1689S–1696S.
  3. Heaney RP: Lessons for nutritional science from vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:825–826.
  4. Heaney RP: Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1706S–1709S.
  5. Plotnikoff GA, Quigley JM: Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Mayo Clin Proc 2003;78:1463–1470.
  6. Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, Shaw AC, Deraska DJ, Kitch BT, Vamvakas EC, Dick IM, Prince RL, Finkelstein JS: Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. N Engl J Med 1998;338:777–783.
  7. Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, Arnaud S, Galan P, Hercberg S, Meunier PJ: Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:439–443.
  8. Guillemant J, Taupin P, Le HT, Taright N, Allemandou A, Peres G, Guillemant S: Vitamin D status during puberty in French healthy male adolescents. Osteoporos Int 1999;10:222–225.
  9. Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Harris S, Sokoll LJ, Falconer G: Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:505–512.
  10. Stamp TC, Round JM: Seasonal changes in human plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Nature 1974;247:563–565.
  11. Mosekilde L: Vitamin D and the elderly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005;62:265–281.
  12. Lips P: Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev 2001;22:477–501.
  13. Omdahl JL, Garry PJ, Hunsaker LA, Hunt WC, Goodwin JS: Nutritional status in a healthy elderly population: vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:1225–1233.
  14. Parikh SJ, Edelman M, Uwaifo GI, Freedman RJ, Semega-Janneh M, Reynolds J, Yanovski JA: The relationship between obesity and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1196–1199.
  15. Rucker D, Allan JA, Fick GH, Hanley DA: Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians. CMAJ 2002;166:1517–1524.
  16. Lips P, Duong T, Oleksik A, Black D, Cummings S, Cox D, Nickelsen T: A global study of vitamin D status and parathyroid function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: baseline data from the multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1212–1221.
  17. Kudlacek S, Schneider B, Peterlik M, Leb G, Klaushof er K, Weber K, Woloszczuk W, Willvonseder R: Assessment of vitamin D and calcium status in healthy adult Austrians. Eur J Clin Invest 2003;33:323–331.
  18. König J, Elmadfa I: Status of calcium and vitamin D of different population groups in Austria. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2000;70:214–220.
  19. Bell NH, Epstein S, Greene A, Shary J, Oexmann MJ, Shaw S: Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects. J Clin Invest 1985;76:370–373.
  20. Snijder MB, van Dam RM, Visser M, Deeg DJ, Dekker JM, Bouter LM, Seidell JC, Lips P: Adiposity in relation to vitamin d status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:4119–4123.
  21. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF: Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:690–693.
  22. Compston JE, Vedi S, Ledger JE, Webb A, Gazet JC, Pilkington TR: Vitamin D status and bone histomorphometry in gross obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2359–2363.
  23. Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P: Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res 2004;12:582–590.
  24. Shi H, Dirienzo D, Zemel MB: Effects of dietary calcium on adipocyte lipid metabolism and body weight regulation in energy-restricted aP2-agouti transgenic mice. FASEB J 2001;15:291–293.
  25. McCarty MF, Thomas CA: PTH excess may promote weight gain by impeding catecholamine-induced lipolysis-implications for the impact of calcium, vitamin D, and alcohol on body weight. Med Hypotheses 2003;61:535–542.
  26. Bolland MJ, Grey AB, Gamble GD, Reid IR: Association between primary hyperparathyroidism and increased body weight: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:1525–1530.
  27. Sherman SS, Hollis BW, Tobin JD: Vitamin D status and related parameters in a healthy population: the effects of age, sex, and season. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:405–413.
  28. Gallagher JC, Riggs BL, Eisman J, Hamstra A, Arnaud SB, DeLuca HF: Intestinal calcium absorption and serum vitamin D metabolites in normal subjects and osteoporotic patients: effect of age and dietary calcium. J Clin Invest 1979;64:729–736.
  29. Orwoll ES, Meier DE: Alterations in calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone physiology in normal men with aging: relationship to the development of senile osteopenia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;63:1262–1269.
  30. Ockene IS, Chiriboga DE, Stanek EJ 3rd, Harmatz MG, Nicolosi R, Saperia G, Well AD, Freedson P, Merriam PA, Reed G, Ma Y, Matthews CE, Hebert JR: Seasonal variation in serum cholesterol levels: treatment implications and possible mechanisms. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:863–870.
  31. Linden V: Vitamin D and serum cholesterol. Scand J Soc Med 1975;3:83–85.
  32. Bostick RM, Fosdick L, Grandits GA, Grambsch P, Gross M, Louis TA: Effect of calcium supplementation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:31–38.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50