Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 67, No. 2, 2007
Issue release date: February 2007
Horm Res 2007;67:100–104

Gluten-Free Diet Impact on Leptin Levels in Asymptomatic Coeliac Adolescents: One Year of Follow-Up

Maggio M.C. · Corsello G. · Iacono G. · Teresi S. · Guicciardino E. · Terrana S. · Liotta A.
aDepartment ‘Materno-Infantile’, University of Palermo, bAnalysis Laboratory, and cUnit of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Children’s Hospital ‘G. Di Cristina’, Palermo, Italy

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Coeliac disease, daily more frequently diagnosed in our population, involves many organs also in oligosymptomatic patients and with an adequate nutritional regime. Possible endocrine implications include failure to thrive, pubertal delay and reproduction diseases due to deregulation of GH, FSH and LH secretion. Leptin, an adipose tissue hormone, can be decreased as well and its deficiency could be related to growth and puberty anomalies. We studied 14 asymptomatic coeliac patients in peripubertal age (7.5–13.8 years) and tested their leptin levels in order to correlate them with endocrine and anthropometric data. Before the diet was started leptinaemia (M±DS) was: 4.94 ± 5.53 ng/ml. In 10/14 patients (71%) leptinaemia was ≤2 DS for gender and age. In all the patients, after a period of 6–12 months of gluten-free diet, Leptin levels appreciably raised to 10.8 ± 7.9 ng/ml, with a significant correlation to the time of the diet. Leptinaemia was actually lower in patients with a severe mucosal atrophy, and in these patients it increased more significantly after the diet was started. The removal of gluten itself may reduce immunological hit to adipose tissue and the ‘malnutrition’ of adipocytes: leptin can hence increase despite no significant increase of body mass index occurs. This study could partially explain the correlation between body mass index, Coeliac disease and the deregulation of puberty and fertility, mainly in patients who started the diet late. It could also explain the reversibility of this alteration if the cause is removed.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Catassi C, Fabiani E, Ratsch IM, Coppa GV, Giorgi PL, Pierdomenico R, Alessandrini S, Iwanejko G, Domenici R, Mei E, Miano A, Marani M, Bottaro G, Spina M, Dotti M, Montanelli A, Barbato M, Viola F, Lazzari R, Vallini M, Guariso G, Plebani M, Cataldo F, Traverso G, Ventura A: The coeliac iceberg in Italy. A multicentre antigliadin antibodies screening for coeliac disease in school-age subjects. Acta Paediatr 1996;412(suppl):29–35.

    External Resources

  2. Jansson UH, Kristiansson B, Albertsson-Wikland K, Bjarnason R: Short-term gluten challenge in children with coeliac disease does not impair spontaneous growth hormone secretion. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2003;16:771–778.
  3. Iughetti L, Bulgarelli S, Forese S, Lorini R, Balli F, Bernasconi S: Endocrine aspects of coeliac disease. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2003;16:805–818.

    External Resources

  4. Ballinger A, Kelly P, Hallyburton E, Besser R, Farthing M: Plasma leptin in chronic inflammatory bowel disease and HIV: implications for the pathogenesis of anorexia and weight loss. Clin Sci 1998;94:479–483.
  5. Ballinger A: Gastric leptin. Gut 1999;44:153–154.
  6. Sobhani I, Bado A, Vissuzaine C, Buyse M, Kermorgant S, Laigneau JP, Attoub S, Lehy T, Henin D, Mignon N, Lewin MJM: Leptin secretion and leptin receptor in the human stomach. Gut 2000;47:178–183.
  7. Carro E, Senaris RM, Seoane LM, Frohman LA, Arimura A, Casanueva FF, Dieguez C: Role of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone and somatostatin on leptin-induced GH secretion. Neuroendocrinology 1999;69:3–10.
  8. Tannenbaum GS, Gurd W, Lapointe M: Leptin is a potent stimulator of spontaneous pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion and the GH response to GH-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 1998;139:3871–3875.
  9. Lahat N, Shapiro S, Karban A, Gerstein R, Kinarty A, Lerner A: Cytokine profile in coeliac disease. Scand J Immunol 1999;49:441–446.
  10. Black D, James WPT, Besser GM: Obesity. A report of the Royal College of Physicians. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1983;17:5–65.

    External Resources

  11. Marshall WA, Tanner JM: Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Arch Dis Child 1969;44:291–303.
  12. Marshall WA, Tanner JM: Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Arch Dis Child 1970;45:13–23.
  13. Carroccio A, Vitale G, Di Prima L, Chifari N, Napoli S, La Russa C, Gulotta G, Averna MR, Montalto G, Mansueto S, Notarbartolo A: Comparison of anti-endomysal antibody assay in the diagnosis of celiac disease: a prospective study. Clin Chem 2002;48:1546–1550.
  14. Walker Smith JA, for Report of Working Group of European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition: Revised criteria for diagnosis of celiac disease. Arch Dis Child 1990;65:909–911.
  15. Garcia-Mayor RV, Andrade MA, Rios M, Lage M, Dieguez C, Casanueva F: Serum Leptin levels in normal children: relationship to age, gender, body mass index, pituitary-gonadal hormones, and pubertal stage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2849–2855.
  16. Ankarberg-Lindgren C, Dahlgren J, Carlsson B, Rosberg S, Carlsson L, Wikland KA, Norjavaara E: Leptin levels show diurnal variation throughout puberty in healthy children, and follow a gender-specific pattern. Eur J Endocrinol 2001;145:43–51.
  17. Guerguiev M, Gòth MI, Korbonits M: Leptin and puberty: a review. Pituitary 2001;4:79–86.
  18. Hoppin AG, Kaplan LM: The leptin era: new insight into mechanisms of body weight homeostasis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1999;29:250–264.
  19. Frisch R, Revelle R: Height and weight at menarche and a hypothesis of critical body weights and adolescent events. Science 1970;169:397–399.
  20. Gill MS, Hall CM, Tillmann V, Clayton PE: Constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP) is associated with hypoleptinaemia. Clin Endocrinol 1999;50:721–726.
  21. Ballinger A: Divergency of leptin response in intestinal inflammation. Gut 1999;44:588–589.
  22. Blanco Quiròs A, Arranz Sanz E, Garrote Adrados JA, Oyàgüez Ugidos P, Calvo Romero C, Alonso Franch M: The tumor necrosis factor system and leptin in coeliac disease. An Pediatr (Barc) 2001;55:198–204.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50