Objective: Swallowing difficulties can exert a profound effect on quality of life, may result in reduced nutritional intake and place individuals at risk of aspiration. However, there is little data available on the swallowing difficulties occurring within the HIV/AIDS population in South Africa. A descriptive study was therefore conducted to document the presence of reported swallowing difficulties in a sample of adults with HIV. Patients and Methods: One-to-one semi-structured interview schedules were administered to 120 adults with HIV attending a clinic in Gauteng, and medical records were evaluated to document the presence of reported swallowing difficulties. Results: Participants described a range of swallowing difficulties and the number of swallowing difficulties reported by participants was negatively correlated with CD4 count. Swallowing difficulties were significantly associated with various opportunistic diseases and related medical pathologies. Prescribed medications were associated with reported swallowing difficulties. Treatment of swallowing difficulties was mainly medical in nature. Swallowing difficulties had affected quality of life. Conclusions: From the results it was concluded that speech therapists have a role to play in the assessment and treatment of swallowing difficulties in individuals with HIV/AIDS.
© 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Swallowing difficulties
- Colvin M, Sharp B: Sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a rural community in the Lesotho Highlands. Sex Transm Infect 2000;76:39–42.
- Colvin M, Dawood S, Kleinschmidt I, Mullick S, Lallo U: Prevalence of HIV and HIV-related diseases in the adult medical wards of a tertiary hospital in Durban, South Africa. Int J STD AIDS2001;12:386–389.
- Mussi-Pinhata MM, Cervi MC, Isaac ML: Predicting perinatal HIV infection in young Brazilian infants: How accurate are signs, symptoms and immunological abnormalities? Int J STD AIDS 2001;12:197–203.
- Dorrington RE: How many people are currently infected with HIV in South Africa? S Afr Med J 2002;92:196–197.
- Davis EA, Pathak DS: Psychometric evaluation of four HIV disease-specific quality-of-life instruments. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:546–552.
- Buset M, Cremer M: Endoscopic palliation of malignant dysphagia. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 1992;55:264–270.
- Moss S, Valentine CB, Carey PB, Hind CRK: Dysphagia in an HIV-positive man. Postgrad J Med 1995;71:247–248.
- Marnejon T, Scoccia V: The coexistence of primary oesophageal lymphoma and candida glabrata oesophagitis presenting in dysphagia and odynophagia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:354–355.
- Larson CR: HIV-1 and Communication Disorders. San Diego, Singular, 1998.
- Halvorsen RA, Moelleken SMC, Kearney AT: Videofluoroscopic evaluation of HIV/AIDS patients with swallowing dysfunction. Abdom Imaging2003;28:244–247.
- Pressman H: Dysphagia in children with AIDS; in Rosenthal SR (ed): Dysphagia and the Child with Developmental Disabilities. San Diego, Singular, 1995, pp 133–141.
- Pratt R: HIV & AIDS: A Strategy for Nursing Care, ed 4. London, Edward Arnold, 1995.
- Cohen PT (ed): The Aids Knowledge Base. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
- Litvan I, Sastry N, Sonies C: Characterizing swallowing abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology 1997;48:1654–1661.
- Logemann JA: The potential future of dysphagia: population-specific diagnosis and treatment. Folia Phoniatr Logop 2000;52:136–141.
- Creswell JW: Research Design – Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, Sage, 1994.
- Caruso AJ, Max L: Effects of ageing on neuromotor processes of swallowing. Semin Speech Lang 1997;18:181–192.
- Kendall KA, Leonard RJ: Videofluoroscopic upper oesophageal sphincter function in elderly dysphagic patients. Laryngoscope 2002;112:332–337.
- Davis-McFarland E: Language and oral-motor development and disorders in infants and young toddlers with human immunodeficiency virus. Semin Speech Lang 2000;21:19–33.
- Drummond A: Research Methods for Therapists. London, Chapman & Hall, 1996.
- Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:196–198.
- Langmore SE: Issues in the management of dysphagia. Folia Phoniatr Logop 1999;51:220–230.
- Logemann JA: Evaluation and Treatment of Swallowing Disorders. Austin, Pro-Ed, 1983.
- Murphy KR, Davidshofer CO: Psychological Testing: Principles and Applications, ed 4. New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1998.
- Babbie E, Mouton J: The Practice of Social Research. Cape Town, Oxford University Press, 2001.
- Osba D: Guidelines for measuring health-related quality of life in clinical trials; in Saquet MJ, Hays RD, Fayers PM (eds): Quality of Life Assessment in Clinical Trials. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp 3–19.
- Peat J (ed): Health Science Research: A Handbook of Quantitative Methods. London, Sage, 2002.
- Muma RD, Lyons BA, Borucki MJ, Pollard RB: HIV Manual for Health Care Professionals, ed 2. Stamford, Appleton & Lange, 1997.
- Rosnow RL, Rosenthal R: Beginning Behavioural Research: A Conceptual Primer, ed 2. London, Prentice Hall, 1996.
- Aron A, Aron EN: Statistics for Psychology, ed 2. London, Prentice Hall, 1999.
- Sincich T: Statistics by Example, ed 5. London, Macmillan, 1993.
- Krippendorff K: Content Analysis. Beverly Hills, Sage, 1980.
- Groher ME: Dysphagia: Diagnosis and Management, ed 3. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.
- Langley J: Working with Swallowing Disorders. Bicester, Winslow Press, 1984.
- Brondbo K: Treatment of cricopharyngeal dysfunction by endoscopic laser myotomy. Acta Otolaryngol 2000;543:222–224.
- Perlman AL, Schulze-Delrieu K (eds): Deglutition and Its Disorders. San Diego, Singular, 1997.
- Nebel OT, Fornes MF, Castelle DO: Symptomatic gastrooesophageal reflux: incidence and precipitating factors. Am J Dig Dis 1976;21:953–956.
- Stuchell RN, Mandel ID: Salivary gland dysfunction and swallowing disorders. Otolaryngol Clinics North Am 1988;21:649–661.
- Robertson PB, Greenspan JS: Oral Manifestations of AIDS. Hong Kong, Procter & Gamble, 1988.
- Huckabee ML, Pelletier CA: Management of Adult Neurogenic Dysphagia. San Diego, Singular, 1999.
- Ekberg O: Diagnostic aspects of dysphagia. Acta Otolaryngol 2000;543:225–228.
- World Health Organisation: WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Bacterial Infections. Geneva, World Health Organisation, 2001.
- McHorney CA, Rosenbeck JC: Functional outcome assessment of adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Semin Speech Lang 1998;19:235–246.
- McHorney CA, Bricker DE, Kramer AE, Rosenbek JC, Robbins J, Chignell KA, et al: The SWAL-QOL outcomes tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia in adults. I. Conceptual foundation and item development. Dysphagia 2000;15:115–121.
- Klugman TM, Ross E: Perceptions of the impact of speech, language, swallowing, and hearing difficulties on quality of life of a group of South African persons with multiple sclerosis. Folia Phoniatr Logop 2002;54:201–221.
- World Health Organisation: International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Geneva, World Health Organisation, 2001.
- Eschleman MM: Introductory Nutrition and Diet Therapy, ed 2. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott Company, 1991.
- Bateman C: Critics say HIV survey potentially biased. S Afr Med J 2003;93:242–243.
- Kallmann K: HIV/AIDS and Social Assistance in South Africa. Cape Town, SALAN/Black Sash Trust, 2003.
- Shisana O, Simbayi L: Nelson Mandela HSRC Study of AIDS: ExecutiveSummary.Pretoria, HSRC, 2002.
Kerry L. Bladon
16 Rotherfield Ave.
Essexwold Bedfordview 2007 (South Africa)
Tel. +27 11 524 0500, Fax +27 11 453 7340
Number of Print Pages : 14
Number of Figures : 3, Number of Tables : 7, Number of References : 50
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica (International Journal of Phoniatrics, Speech Therapy and Communication Pathology)
Vol. 59, No. 1, Year 2007 (Cover Date: December 2006)
Journal Editor: Schutte, H.K. (Groningen)
ISSN: 1021–7762 (print), 1421–9972 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/FPL
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.