Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 41, No. 2, 2007
Issue release date: February 2007

Effects of Various Forms of Calcium Added to Chewing Gum on Initial Enamel Carious Lesions in situ

Schirrmeister J.F. · Seger R.K. · Altenburger M.J. · Lussi A. · Hellwig E.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

The purpose of this randomized, cross-over in situ study was to determine the effects of 4 chewing gums on artificial caries-like subsurface lesions. Two chewing gums (1 with zinc citrate and 1 without) contained dicalcium phosphate (3.9%), calcium gluconate (1.8%) and calcium lactate (0.45%), 1 chewing gum contained casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes (0.7%), and another one contained no calcium. Fifteen subjects without current caries activity (7 male, 8 female; mean age: 27.5 ± 2.5 years) wore removable buccal appliances in the lower jaw with 4 bovine enamel slabs with subsurface lesions. The appliances were inserted immediately before gum chewing for 20 min and then retained for an additional 20 min. This was performed 4 times per day. Every subject chewed 4 different chewing gums over 4 periods of 14 days each. During a fifth period (control) the subjects only wore the appliances without chewing gum. At completion of each period the enamel slabs were embedded, sectioned and subjected to transversal microradiography. With regard to change of mineral loss and of lesion depth no significant differences could be found between chewing gums containing calcium and calcium-free chewing gums. Moreover, the chewing gum groups and the control group did not differ significantly if adjustments were made for baseline values (p > 0.05; ANCOVA). Under the conditions of the present study it may be concluded that the use of chewing gum offers no additional remineralizing benefit to buccal tooth surfaces, even if the chewing gum contains calcium compounds.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Amaechi BT, Higham SM: Eroded enamel lesion remineralization by saliva as a possible factor in the site-specificity of human dental erosion. Arch Oral Biol 2001;46:697–703.
  2. Buchalla W, Attin T, Schulte Mönting J, Hellwig E: Fluoride uptake, retention, and remineralization efficacy of a highly concentrated fluoride solution on enamel lesions in situ. J Dent Res 2002;81:329–333.
  3. Buskes JA, Christoffersen J, Arends J: Lesion formation and lesion remineralization in enamel under constant composition conditions: a new technique with applications. Caries Res 1985;19:490–496.
  4. Creanor SL, Strang R, Gilmour WH, Foye RH, Brown J, Geddes DA, Hall AF: The effect of chewing gum use on in situ enamel lesion remineralization. J Dent Res 1992;71:1895–1900.
  5. Dawes C, MacPherson LM: The distribution of saliva and sucrose around the mouth during the use of chewing gum and the implications for the site-specificity of caries and calculus deposition. J Dent Res 1993;72:852–857.
  6. Finn SB, Jamison HC: The effect of a dicalcium phosphate chewing gum on caries incidence in children: 30-month results. J Am Dent Assoc 1967;74:987–995.
  7. Iijima Y, Cai F, Shen P, Walker G, Reynolds C, Reynolds EC: Acid resistance of enamel subsurface lesions remineralized by a sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. Caries Res 2004;38:551–556.
  8. Imfeld T: Chewing gum – facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1999;10:405–419.
  9. Itthagarun A, King NM, Yiu C, Dawes C: The effect of chewing gums containing calcium phosphates on the remineralization of artificial caries-like lesions in situ. Caries Res 2005;39:251–254.
  10. Kielbassa AM, Shohadai SP, Schulte-Monting J: Effect of saliva substitutes on mineral content of demineralized and sound dental enamel. Support Care Cancer 2001;9:40–47.
  11. Koulourides T, Phantumvanit P, Munksgaard EC, Housch T: An intraoral model used for studies of fluoride incorporation in enamel. J Oral Pathol 1974;3:185–196.
  12. Leach SA, Lee GT, Edgar WM: Remineralization of artificial caries-like lesions in human enamel in situ by chewing sorbitol gum. J Dent Res 1989;68:1064–1068.
  13. McClure FJ: The cariostatic effect in white rats of phosphorus and calcium supplements added to the flour of bread formulas and to bread diets. J Nutr 1960;72:131–136.
  14. Reynolds EC: Anticariogenic complexes of amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptides: a review. Spec Care Dentist 1998;18:8–16.
  15. Reynolds EC, Cai F, Shen P, Walker GD: Retention in plaque and remineralization of enamel lesions by various forms of calcium in a mouthrinse or sugar-free chewing gum. J Dent Res 2003;82:206–211.
  16. Richardson AS, Hole LW, McCombie F, Kolthammer J: Anticariogenic effect of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate chewing gum: results after two years. J Can Dent Assoc 1972;38:213–218.
  17. Shen P, Cai F, Nowicki A, Vincent J, Reynolds EC: Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. J Dent Res 2001;80:2066–2070.
  18. Stralfors A: Inhibition of dental caries in hamsters. V. The effect of dibasic and monobasic calcium phosphate. Odontol Revy 1961;12:236–256.
  19. White DJ: Use of synthetic polymer gels for artificial carious lesion preparation. Caries Res 1987;21:228–242.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50