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Vol. 20, No. 3, 2007
Issue release date: May 2007
Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2007;20:148–154

Human Skin Penetration of Sunscreen Nanoparticles: In-vitro Assessment of a Novel Micronized Zinc Oxide Formulation

Cross S.E. · Innes B. · Roberts M.S. · Tsuzuki T. · Robertson T.A. · McCormick P.
aTherapeutics Research Unit, Southern Clinical Division, Department of Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, bAdvanced Nanotechnology Ltd, Welshpool, and cSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley, Australia

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The extent to which topically applied solid nanoparticles can penetrate the stratum corneum and access the underlying viable epidermis and the rest of the body is a great potential safety concern. Therefore, human epidermal penetration of a novel, transparent, nanoparticulate zinc oxide sunscreen formulation was determined using Franz-type diffusion cells, 24-hour exposure and an electron microscopy to verify the location of nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Less than 0.03% of the applied zinc content penetrated the epidermis (not significantly more than the zinc detected in receptor phase following application of a placebo formulation). No particles could be detected in the lower stratum corneum or viable epidermis by electron microscopy, suggesting that minimal nanoparticle penetration occurs through the human epidermis.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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    External Resources

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