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Vol. 20, No. 3, 2007
Issue release date: May 2007

Human Skin Penetration of Sunscreen Nanoparticles: In-vitro Assessment of a Novel Micronized Zinc Oxide Formulation

Cross S.E. · Innes B. · Roberts M.S. · Tsuzuki T. · Robertson T.A. · McCormick P.
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Abstract

The extent to which topically applied solid nanoparticles can penetrate the stratum corneum and access the underlying viable epidermis and the rest of the body is a great potential safety concern. Therefore, human epidermal penetration of a novel, transparent, nanoparticulate zinc oxide sunscreen formulation was determined using Franz-type diffusion cells, 24-hour exposure and an electron microscopy to verify the location of nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Less than 0.03% of the applied zinc content penetrated the epidermis (not significantly more than the zinc detected in receptor phase following application of a placebo formulation). No particles could be detected in the lower stratum corneum or viable epidermis by electron microscopy, suggesting that minimal nanoparticle penetration occurs through the human epidermis.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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    External Resources

  21. Jiminez MM, Pelletier J, Bobin MF, Martini MC: Influence of encapsulation in the in vitro percutaneous absorption of octyl methoxycinnamate. Int J Pharm 2004;272:45–55.
  22. Wissing SA, Muller RH: The influence of the crystallinity of lipid nanoparticles on their occlusive properties. Int J Pharm 2002;242:377–379.
  23. Hayden CGJ, Cross SE, Anderson C, Saunders NA, Roberts MS: Sunscreen penetration of human skin and related keratinocyte toxicity after topical application. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2005;18:170–174.
  24. Tinkle SS, Antonini JM, Rich BA, Roberts JR, Salmen R, Depree K, Adkins EJ: Skin as a route of exposure and sensitisation in chronic beryllium disease. Environ Health Perspect 2003;111:1202–1208.


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