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Vol. 11, Suppl. 2, 2002
Issue release date: November 2002
Section title: Epidemiology
Open Access Gateway
Med Principles Pract 2002;11(suppl 2):9–16
(DOI:10.1159/000066415)

Diet and Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in the Arab Middle East Countries

Musaiger A.O.
Environmental and Biological Program, Bahrain Center for Studies and Research, Bahrain
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

The picture of health and nutritional status in the Arab Middle East countries has changed drastically during the past four decades as a result of changes in dietary habits, socio-economic situation and lifestyle. The chronic non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes, hypertension and cancer have become the main public health problems in most of these countries. Pattern of food consumption may play an important part in the increasing incidence of CHD in this region. The traditional diet, characterized by a high-fiber content and low in fat and cholesterol has changed to a more westernized diet with high content of fat, free sugars, sodium and cholesterol. Daily per capita fat supplies showed an impressive increase in most of these countries, ranging from 13.6% in Sudan to 143.3% in Saudi Arabia. A high intake of cholesterol is reported in some of these countries. Also, the consumption of fiber-rich foods such as whole grains, vegetables and fruits is low. Data from food composition tables in the region showed that sodium content in the Arab Middle East diet is high. Dietary guidelines and recommendations for the prevention and control of chronic diseases, including CHD, in these Arab countries are provided.

© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

Abstract of Epidemiology

References

  1. Musaiger AO: Nutritional status and dietary habits of adolescent girls in Oman. Ecol Food Nutr 1994;31:227–237.
  2. FAO: Food Balance Sheet. Rome, 2000.
  3. FAO: A balanced diet – a way to good nutrition. Report No. NERC/90/4, Submitted to Twentieth FAO Regional Conference for the Near East, Tunisia. Rome, 1990.
  4. WHO: Clinical disorders arising from dietary affluence in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Alexandria, WHO Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean, 1989.
  5. Musaiger AO, Miladi S: The State of Food and Nutrition in the Near East. Cairo, FAO Regional Office, 1997.
  6. Labarthe DR: Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Maryland, Aspen, 1998.
  7. FAO: Fats and Oils in Human Nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition. Paper No. 57. Rome, 1994.
  8. Al-Awadi F, Rahman KMM, Thomas M: Study of obesity with hyperlipidaemia in Kuwaiti adults. J Kuwait Med Assoc 1990;24:161–166.
  9. Inam S, Cumberbatch M, Judzewithsch R: Importance of cholesterol screening in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 1990;12:215–220.
  10. Hossain MM, Pugh RNH, Malik M: Prevalence and correlates of diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia in UAE. Bahrain Med Bull 1998;20:119–122.
  11. Baba NH: Dietary intake and nutrition related disorders in Lebanon. Nutr Hlth 2000;14:33–40.
  12. O’Sullivan K: Fiber and its role in health and disease. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1998;49:59–512.
  13. Zahran AA, Zahran NA: The effect of iron and vitamin C intake on hemoglobin levels of the Saudi elderly. Res Bull Hom Econ Manoufia Univ 1994;4:33–34.
  14. Al-Mohizea IS, Al-Khannal MA, Al-Othiamin A, et al: Evaluation of the Nutritional Status of the Saudi Population. Riyadh, King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology, 1994.
  15. Musaiger AO: Health and Nutritional Status of Omani Families. Muscat, UNICEF/Muscat Office, 1992.
  16. Musaiger AO, Radwan H: Food frequency intake of female university female students in United Arab Emirates; in Musaiger AO, Miladi S (eds): Food Consumption Patterns and Dietary Habits in the Arab Countries of the Gulf. Cairo, FAO Regional Office for the Near East, 1995, pp 69–77.
  17. Musaiger AO, Abuirmeileh N: Food consumption patterns of adult population in United Arab Emirates. J Royal Soc Hlth 1998;118:146–150.
  18. Musaiger AO, Al-Roomi K: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Arab adult community. Nutr Hlth 1996;11:149–157.
  19. Pender F: Nutrition and Dietetics. Edinburgh, Campion Press, 1994.
  20. Musaiger AO: Dietary habits of adolescent girls in Bahrain; in Musaiger AO, Miladi S (eds): Food Consumption Patterns and Dietary Habits in the Arab Countries of the Gulf. Cairo, FAO Regional Office for the Near East, 1995, pp 31–40.
  21. WHO: Report of Inter-Country Consultation on Health of Adolescents. Alexandria, WHO Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean, 1994.
  22. Tukan S: Availability of micronutrients in Arab diet, example from Jordan; in Musaiger AO, Miladi S (eds): Micronutrient Deficiencies in the Arab Middle East Countries. Cairo, FAO/RNE, 1996, pp 73–87.
  23. Pellet P, Shadarevian S: Food Composition Tables for Use in the Middle East. Lebanon, American University of Beirut, 1970.
  24. Musaiger AO, Al-Dallal ZS: Food Composition Tables for Use in Bahrain. Bahrain, Ministry of Health, 1985.
  25. Sawaya W, Al-Awadi F: Experience of Kuwait in analysing local composite dishes; in Musaiger AO, Miladi S (eds): Proceedings of Workshop on Establishing Food Composition Data for the Arab Countries of the Gulf. Cairo, FAO, Regional Office for Near East, 1996, pp 75–96.
  26. UAE University: Dietary Guidelines for the Prevention and Reduction of Diet-Related Chronic Diseases in the Arab Countries. Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, 1994.
  27. WHO: Prevention in Childhood and Youth of Adult Cardiovascular Diseases, Time for Action. Geneva, WHO Technical Report Series 792, 1990.
  28. WHO: Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Geneva, WHO Technical Report Series 797, 1990.
  29. Hayes KC: Dietary fat and coronary heart disease; in Bendich A, Deckelbaum RJ (eds): Prevention Nutrition. New Jersey, Human Press, 1997, pp 153–170.

  

Author Contacts

Dr. A.O. Musaiger
Director, Environmental and Biological Program
Bahrain Center for Studies and Research
PO Box 496, Manama (Bahrain)
Tel. +973 754948, Fax +973 754822, E-Mail Amusaiger@bcsr.gov.bh

  

Article Information

Received: Received: October 28, 2001
Revised: June 22, 2002
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 29

  

Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice
International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre A Publicationof the Academic Publications Council

Vol. 11, No. Suppl. 2, Year 2002 (Cover Date: Released November 2002)

Journal Editor: Farida Al Awadi, Kuwait
ISSN: 1011–7571 (print), 1423–0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/mpp


Open Access License / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

The picture of health and nutritional status in the Arab Middle East countries has changed drastically during the past four decades as a result of changes in dietary habits, socio-economic situation and lifestyle. The chronic non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes, hypertension and cancer have become the main public health problems in most of these countries. Pattern of food consumption may play an important part in the increasing incidence of CHD in this region. The traditional diet, characterized by a high-fiber content and low in fat and cholesterol has changed to a more westernized diet with high content of fat, free sugars, sodium and cholesterol. Daily per capita fat supplies showed an impressive increase in most of these countries, ranging from 13.6% in Sudan to 143.3% in Saudi Arabia. A high intake of cholesterol is reported in some of these countries. Also, the consumption of fiber-rich foods such as whole grains, vegetables and fruits is low. Data from food composition tables in the region showed that sodium content in the Arab Middle East diet is high. Dietary guidelines and recommendations for the prevention and control of chronic diseases, including CHD, in these Arab countries are provided.

© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Author Contacts

Dr. A.O. Musaiger
Director, Environmental and Biological Program
Bahrain Center for Studies and Research
PO Box 496, Manama (Bahrain)
Tel. +973 754948, Fax +973 754822, E-Mail Amusaiger@bcsr.gov.bh

  

Article Information

Received: Received: October 28, 2001
Revised: June 22, 2002
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 29

  

Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice
International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre A Publicationof the Academic Publications Council

Vol. 11, No. Suppl. 2, Year 2002 (Cover Date: Released November 2002)

Journal Editor: Farida Al Awadi, Kuwait
ISSN: 1011–7571 (print), 1423–0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/mpp


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Epidemiology

Received: 10/28/2001
Accepted: 6/22/2002
Published online: 11/27/2002
Issue release date: November 2002

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 1011-7571 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MPP


Open Access License / Drug Dosage

Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Musaiger AO: Nutritional status and dietary habits of adolescent girls in Oman. Ecol Food Nutr 1994;31:227–237.
  2. FAO: Food Balance Sheet. Rome, 2000.
  3. FAO: A balanced diet – a way to good nutrition. Report No. NERC/90/4, Submitted to Twentieth FAO Regional Conference for the Near East, Tunisia. Rome, 1990.
  4. WHO: Clinical disorders arising from dietary affluence in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Alexandria, WHO Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean, 1989.
  5. Musaiger AO, Miladi S: The State of Food and Nutrition in the Near East. Cairo, FAO Regional Office, 1997.
  6. Labarthe DR: Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Maryland, Aspen, 1998.
  7. FAO: Fats and Oils in Human Nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition. Paper No. 57. Rome, 1994.
  8. Al-Awadi F, Rahman KMM, Thomas M: Study of obesity with hyperlipidaemia in Kuwaiti adults. J Kuwait Med Assoc 1990;24:161–166.
  9. Inam S, Cumberbatch M, Judzewithsch R: Importance of cholesterol screening in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 1990;12:215–220.
  10. Hossain MM, Pugh RNH, Malik M: Prevalence and correlates of diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia in UAE. Bahrain Med Bull 1998;20:119–122.
  11. Baba NH: Dietary intake and nutrition related disorders in Lebanon. Nutr Hlth 2000;14:33–40.
  12. O’Sullivan K: Fiber and its role in health and disease. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1998;49:59–512.
  13. Zahran AA, Zahran NA: The effect of iron and vitamin C intake on hemoglobin levels of the Saudi elderly. Res Bull Hom Econ Manoufia Univ 1994;4:33–34.
  14. Al-Mohizea IS, Al-Khannal MA, Al-Othiamin A, et al: Evaluation of the Nutritional Status of the Saudi Population. Riyadh, King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology, 1994.
  15. Musaiger AO: Health and Nutritional Status of Omani Families. Muscat, UNICEF/Muscat Office, 1992.
  16. Musaiger AO, Radwan H: Food frequency intake of female university female students in United Arab Emirates; in Musaiger AO, Miladi S (eds): Food Consumption Patterns and Dietary Habits in the Arab Countries of the Gulf. Cairo, FAO Regional Office for the Near East, 1995, pp 69–77.
  17. Musaiger AO, Abuirmeileh N: Food consumption patterns of adult population in United Arab Emirates. J Royal Soc Hlth 1998;118:146–150.
  18. Musaiger AO, Al-Roomi K: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Arab adult community. Nutr Hlth 1996;11:149–157.
  19. Pender F: Nutrition and Dietetics. Edinburgh, Campion Press, 1994.
  20. Musaiger AO: Dietary habits of adolescent girls in Bahrain; in Musaiger AO, Miladi S (eds): Food Consumption Patterns and Dietary Habits in the Arab Countries of the Gulf. Cairo, FAO Regional Office for the Near East, 1995, pp 31–40.
  21. WHO: Report of Inter-Country Consultation on Health of Adolescents. Alexandria, WHO Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean, 1994.
  22. Tukan S: Availability of micronutrients in Arab diet, example from Jordan; in Musaiger AO, Miladi S (eds): Micronutrient Deficiencies in the Arab Middle East Countries. Cairo, FAO/RNE, 1996, pp 73–87.
  23. Pellet P, Shadarevian S: Food Composition Tables for Use in the Middle East. Lebanon, American University of Beirut, 1970.
  24. Musaiger AO, Al-Dallal ZS: Food Composition Tables for Use in Bahrain. Bahrain, Ministry of Health, 1985.
  25. Sawaya W, Al-Awadi F: Experience of Kuwait in analysing local composite dishes; in Musaiger AO, Miladi S (eds): Proceedings of Workshop on Establishing Food Composition Data for the Arab Countries of the Gulf. Cairo, FAO, Regional Office for Near East, 1996, pp 75–96.
  26. UAE University: Dietary Guidelines for the Prevention and Reduction of Diet-Related Chronic Diseases in the Arab Countries. Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, 1994.
  27. WHO: Prevention in Childhood and Youth of Adult Cardiovascular Diseases, Time for Action. Geneva, WHO Technical Report Series 792, 1990.
  28. WHO: Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Geneva, WHO Technical Report Series 797, 1990.
  29. Hayes KC: Dietary fat and coronary heart disease; in Bendich A, Deckelbaum RJ (eds): Prevention Nutrition. New Jersey, Human Press, 1997, pp 153–170.