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Vol. 46, No. 3, 2002
Issue release date: November 2002
Section title: Biological Psychiatry. Main Editor: J. Mendlewicz (Brussels) / Original Paper
Neuropsychobiology 2002;46:111–120
(DOI:10.1159/000066388)

Nonlinear Measures of Respiration: Respiratory Irregularity and Increased Chaos of Respiration in Patients with Panic Disorder

Yeragani V.K.a · Radhakrishna R.K.A.b · Tancer M.a · Uhde T.a
aDepartment of Psychiatry, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Mich., USA; bDepartment of ECE, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
email Corresponding Author

Dr. V.K. Yeragani, Professor of Psychiatry

Wayne State University School of Medicine

Flat No. 16, K.C.N. Mansion, Madhava Nagar

Bangalore 560001 (India)

Tel. +91 80 2287715, Fax +91 80 3610085, E-Mail vikramyershr@yahoo.com

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Abstract

Background: Respiratory irregularity has been previously reported in patients with panic disorder using time domain measures. However, the respiratory signal is not entirely linear and a few previous studies used approximate entropy (APEN), a measure of regularity of time series. We have been studying APEN and other nonlinear measures including a measure of chaos, the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of heart rate time series, in some detail. In this study, we used these measures of respiration to compare normal controls (n = 18) and patients with panic disorder (n = 22) in addition to the traditional time domain measures of respiratory rate and tidal volume. Methods: Respiratory signal was obtained by the Respitrace system using a thoracic and an abdominal belt, which was digitized at 500 Hz. Later, the time series were constructed at 4 Hz, as the highest frequency in this signal is limited to 0.5 Hz. We used 256 s of data (1,024 points) during supine and standing postures under normal breathing and controlled breathing at 12 breaths/min. Results: APEN was significantly higher in patients in standing posture during normal as well as controlled breathing (p = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively). LLE was also significantly higher in standing posture during normal breathing (p = 0.009). Similarly, the time domain measures of standard deviations and the coefficient of variation (COV) of tidal volume (TV) were significantly higher in the patient group (p = 0.02 and 0.004, respectively). The frequency of sighs was also higher in the patient group in standing posture (p = 0.02). In standing posture, LLE (p < 0.05) as well as APEN (p < 0.01) contributed significantly toward the separation of the two groups over and beyond the linear measure, i.e. the COV of TV. Conclusion: These findings support the previously described respiratory irregularity in patients with panic disorder and also illustrate the utility of nonlinear measures such as APEN and LLE as additional measures toward a better understanding of the abnormalities of respiratory physiology in similar patient populations as the correlation between LLE, APEN and some of the time domain measures only explained up to 50–60% of the variation.

© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

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Abstract of Biological Psychiatry. Main Editor: J. Mendlewicz (Brussels) / Original Paper

Published online: 11/11/2002

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 5

ISSN: 0302-282X (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0224 (Online)

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