Guidelines for Authors
Aims and Scope
Types of Papers
Preparation of Manuscripts
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
NIH-Funded Research, Self-Archiving
Aims and Scope
'Caries Research' is an international journal, the aim of which is to promote research in dental caries and related fields through publication of original research and critical evaluation of research
findings. The journal will publish papers on the aetiology, pathogenesis, prevention and clinical control or management of dental caries. Papers on health outcomes related to dental caries are also of
interest, as are papers on other disorders of dental hard tissues, such as dental erosion. Aspects of caries beyond the stage where the pulp ceases to be vital are outside the scope of the journal.
The journal reviews papers dealing with natural products and other bacterial inhibitors against specific criteria, details of which are available from the Editor.
Manuscripts written in English should be submitted online:
Should you experience problems with your submission, please contact:
Prof. David Beighton
(Editor-in-Chef, Caries Research)
Department of Microbiology
The Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Microbiology and Salivary Research
KCL Dental Institute, Floor 17, Guys Tower
London Bridge SE1 9RT (UK)
Tel. +44 2071887465
Fax +44 2071887466
During the online submission you will be asked to list complete mailing addresses, including e-mail addresses of three potential reviewers for your manuscript.
Copies of any 'in press' papers cited in the manuscript must accompany the submission. Manuscripts reporting on clinical trials must be accompanied by the CONSORT checklist (see below).
Whether intentional or not, plagiarism is a serious violation. We define plagiarism as a case in which a paper reproduces another work with at least 25% similarity and without citation.
If evidence of plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after publication of the paper, the author will be offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the
manuscript will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined by the responsible Editor(s).
All manuscripts are subject to editorial review. Manuscripts are received with the explicit understanding that the data they contain have not previously been published (in any language) and that they
are not under simultaneous consideration by any other publication.
Submission of an article for publication implies the transfer of the copyright from the author to the publisher upon acceptance. Accepted papers become the property of Caries Research and may not be
reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the written consent of the publisher.
It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to reproduce illustrations, tables, etc., from other publications. Authors of papers describing research on human subjects are required to state
that they have adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki.
Types of Papers
Original papers or Short Communications
are reports of original work (including systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Both have the structure outlined below but for Short Communications the
abstract should be less than 100 words and the manuscript should not exceed 3 printed pages, equivalent to about 9 manuscript pages (including tables, illustrations and references).
can have a freer format but should nevertheless commence with a Title page, an Abstract and an Introduction defining the scope.
are concise articles that present critical discussion of a topic of current interest, or a fresh look at a problem, and should aim to stimulate discussion.
Letters to the Editor
, commenting on recent papers in the journal, are published occasionally, together with a response from the authors of the paper concerned.
Preparation of Manuscripts
Text should be one-and-a-half-spaced, with wide margins. All pages and all lines must be numbered, starting from the title page. A conventional font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, should be used,
with a font size of 11 or 12. Avoid using italics except for Linnaean names of organisms and names of genes.
Manuscripts should be prepared as a text file plus separate files for illustrations. The text file should contain the following sequence of sections: Title page; Declaration of interests; Abstract;
Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; Acknowledgements; References; Legends; Tables. Each section should start on a new page, except for the body of the paper (Introduction to
Acknowledgements), which should be continuous. Lines in the manuscript must be numbered consecutively from the title page until the last page. Submissions which do not conform to these simple
guidelines will be returned to the author.
The first page of each manuscript should show, in order:
Declaration of Interests:
- the title, which should be informative but concise;
- the authors' names and initials, without degrees or professional status, followed by their institutes;
- a short title, maximum length 60 characters and spaces, for use as a running head;
- a list of 3-10 key words;
- the name of the corresponding author and full contact details (postal address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address).
Potential conflicts of interest should be identified for each author or, if there are no such conflicts, this should be stated explicitly. Conflict of interest exists
where an author has a personal or financial relationship that might introduce bias or affect their judgement. Examples of situations where conflicts of interest might arise are restrictive conditions
in the funding of the research, or if an author or their employer holds patent(s) on a product used in the study, or payment to an investigator from organisations with an interest in the study
(including employment, consultancies, honoraria, ownership of shares, travel grant). Investigators should disclose potential conflicts to study participants and should state whether they have done
The possible existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude consideration of a manuscript for publication, but the Editor might consider it appropriate to publish the disclosed information along
with the paper.
The abstract should summarise the contents of the paper in a single paragraph of no more than 250 words (to ensure that the abstract is published in full by on-line services such as
PubMed). No attempt should be made to give numerical results in detail. References are not allowed in the abstract.
This section should provide a concise summary of the background to the relevant field of research, introduce the specific problem addressed by the study and state the hypotheses
to be tested.
Materials and Methods (or Subjects and Methods):
All relevant attributes of the material (e.g. tissue, patients or population sample) forming the subject of the research should be provided.
Experimental, analytical and statistical methods should be described concisely but in enough detail that others can repeat the work. The name and brief address of the manufacturer or supplier of major
equipment should be given.
Statistical methods should be described with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, findings should be quantified
and appropriate measures of error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals) given. Sole reliance on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of P values, should be avoided. Details about
eligibility criteria for subjects, randomization and the number of observations should be included. The computer software and the statistical methods used should be specified. See Altman et al.:
Statistical guidelines for contributors to medical journals [Br Med J 1983;286:1489–93] for further information.
Manuscripts reporting studies on human subjects should include evidence that the research was ethically conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki
(World Medical Association
).In particular, there must be a statement in Materials and Methods that the consent of an appropriate ethical committee
was obtained prior to the start of the study, and that subjects were volunteers who had given informed, written consent.
Information detailing the power and sample size calculations must be included in the manuscript.
Randomized clinical trials should be reported according to the standardised protocol of the CONSORT Statement
. The CONSORT checklist must be
submitted together with papers reporting clinical trials.
Randomized clinical trials must be registered at clinicaltrials.gov
or similar national authority and the trial number included in the manuscript.
Trials beginning after 1 July 2012 must be registered before recruitment of the first patient. Caries Research will accept 'retrospective registration' of trials that began before 1 July 2012
(retrospective meaning registration occurs after patient enrolment begins). When submitting a paper on a clinical trial, the trial registration number should be stated at the end of the abstract in the
following format: Trial registration: [name of the trial registry, the registry URL and the trial registration number].
In studies on laboratory animals, the experimental procedures should conform to the principles laid down in the European
Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes
and/or the National
Research Council Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
Unless the purpose of a paper is to compare specific systems or products, commercial names of clinical and scientific equipment or techniques should only be cited, as appropriate, in the 'Materials and
Methods' or 'Acknowledgements' sections. Elsewhere in the manuscript generic terms should be used.
In any manuscript involving microradiography, the following information must be included: the radiation source and filters used and the kV used (this determines the wavelength of radiation and hence the
validity of using Angmar's equation).
Manuscripts on experimental enamel caries should show that the lesions retain a relatively well-preserved surface layer, i.e. are not surfacesoftened lesions. Proof of surface integrity can be provided
either as illustrations in the paper or as supplementary material for the reviewers. Transverse microradiography, polarized light microscopy of a section immersed in water or backscattered scanning
electron microscopy of a polished cross-section can be used to provide the necessary proof. To allow the nature of experimental changes to be assessed, microradiographs or micrographs should be provided
to show part of the experimental lesion and the adjacent control (e.g. figure 2 of Zaura et al.: Caries Res 2007;41:489–492). Again, these images can be provided as part of the paper or as supplementary
material for review purposes.
Results should be presented without interpretation. The same data should not be presented in both tables and figures. The text should not repeat numerical data provided in tables or
figures but should indicate the most important results and describe relevant trends and patterns.
This section has the functions of describing any limitations of material or methods, of interpreting the data and of drawing inferences about the contribution of the study to the
wider field of research. There should be no repetition of preceding sections, e.g. reiteration of results or the aim of the research. The discussion should end with a few sentences summarising the
conclusions of the study. However, there should not be a separate 'Conclusions' section.
Acknowledge the contribution of colleagues (for technical assistance, statistical advice, critical comment etc.) and provide the position(s) of author(s) employed by commercial
firms. This section should describe the source(s) of funding that have supported the work inlcuding relevant grant numbers. Please also include this sentence: "The funders had no role in study design,
data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript." If this statement is not correct, you must describe the role of any sponsors or funders, and amend the sentence
as needed. Additionally, the roles of all authors must be described (For example: Conceived and designed the experiments: AA, BB. Performed the clinical examination: AA, CC. Performed the experiments:
DD, FF. Analyzed the data: BB, FF. Wrote the paper: AA, CC, FF, EE).
The table headings should be listed first, followed by the legends for the illustrations.
Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals. Each table should be placed on a separate page. Tables should not be constructed using tabs but by utilising the table facilities of the
- Illustrations should be numbered in Arabic numerals in the sequence of citation. Figure numbers must be clearly indicated on the figures themselves, outside the image area.
- Black and white half-tone illustrations must have a final resolution of 300 dpi after scaling, line drawings one of 800-1200 dpi.
- Figures with a screen background should not be submitted.
- When possible, group several illustrations in one block for reproduction (max. size 180 x 223 mm).
Color illustrations are reproduced free of charge. In the print version, the illustrations are reproduced in black and white. Please avoid referring to the colors in the
text and figure legends.
Up to 6 color illustrations per page can be integrated within the text at CHF 800.00 per page.
Reference to other publications should give due acknowledgement to previous work; provide the reader with accurate and up-to-date guidance on the field of research under discussion; and provide
evidence to support lines of argument. Authors should select references carefully to fulfil these aims without attempting to be comprehensive.
Cited work should already be published or officially accepted for publication. Material submitted for publication but not yet accepted should be cited as 'unpublished results', while unpublished
observations communicated to the authors by another should be cited as 'personal communication', with credit in both cases being given to the source of the information. Neither unpublished nor
personally communicated material should be included in the list of references. Abstracts more than 2 years old and theses should not be cited without a good reason, which should be explained in the
covering letter accompanying the paper.
References should be cited by naming the author(s) and year. Where references are cited in parenthesis, both names and date are enclosed in square brackets. Where the author is the subject or object
of the sentence, only the year is enclosed in brackets.
One author: [Frostell, 1984] or Frostell .
Two authors: [Dawes and ten Cate, 1990] or Dawes and ten Cate .
More than two authors: [Trahan et al., 1985] or Trahan et al. .
Several references cited in parenthesis should be in date order and separated by semi-colons: [Frostell, 1984; Trahan et al., 1985; Dawes and ten Cate, 1990].
Material published on the World Wide Web should be cited like a reference to a print publication, and the URL included in the reference list (not in the text), together with the year when it was
The reference list should include all the publications cited in the text, and only those publications. References, formatted as in the examples below, should be arranged in strict alphabetical order.
All authors should be listed. For papers by the same authors, references should be listed according to year. Papers published by the same authors in the same year should be distinguished by the
letters a, b, c, ... immediately following the year, in both the text citation and the reference list. For abbreviation of journal names, use the Index Medicus system. For journals, provide only
the year, volume number and inclusive page numbers.
(a) Papers published in periodicals: Lussi A, Longbottom C, Gygax M, Braig F: Influence of professional cleaning and drying of occlusal surfaces on laser fluorescence in vivo. Caries Res
(b) Papers published only with DOI numbers: Theoharides TC, Boucher W, Spear K: Serum interleukin-6 reflects disease severity and osteoporosis in mastocytosis patients. Int Arch Allergy
Immunol DOI: 10.1159/000063858.
(c) Monographs: Matthews DE, Farewell VT: Using and Understanding Medical Statistics. Basel, Karger, 1985.
(d) Edited books: DuBois RN: Cyclooxygenase-2 and colorectal cancer; in Dannenberg AJ, DuBois RN (eds): COX-2. Prog Exp Tum Res. Basel, Karger, 2003, vol 37, pp 124-137.
(e) Patents: Diggens AA, Ross JW: Determining ionic species electrochemically. UK Patent Application GB 2 064 131 A, 1980.
(f) World Wide Web: Chaplin M: Water structure and behavior. www.lsbu.ac.uk/water, 2004.
Supplementary material is restricted to additional information which is directly pertinent to the contentand conclusion of the paper. Please note that all supplementary files will undergo editorial review
and should be submitted together with the original manuscript. The editors reserve the right to reject or limit the scope and length of supplementary material. Supplementary material must meet production
quality standards for web publication without the need for any modification or editing. In general, supplementary files should not exceed 10 MB in size. Acceptable file formats are word or pdf, excel
spreadsheets (only if the data cannot be converted properly to a pdf file), video files (.mov, .avi, .mpeg), and audio files (.wav), either free standing or incorporated into html or ppt files in each
case to illustrate the sound.
Accepted supplementary material will be published as submitted and no proofs will be provided to the authors.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
S. Karger Publishers supports DOIs as unique identifiers for articles. A DOI number will be printed on the title page of each article. DOIs can be useful in the future for identifying and citing articles
published online without volume or issue information. More information can be found at www.doi.org
Karger's Author's ChoiceTM
service broadens the reach of your article and gives all users worldwide free and full access for reading, downloading and printing at
www.Karger.com. The option is available for a one-time fee of CHF 3,000.00, which is a permissible cost in grant allocation. More information can be found at
The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandates under the NIH Public Access Policy that final, peer-reviewed manuscripts appear in its digital database within 12 months of the official publication
date. As a service to authors, Karger submits your manuscript on your behalf to PubMed Central (PMC) immediately upon publication. It usually receives a PMCID within approximately a month and will appear
in PMC after 12 months. For those selecting our premium Author's ChoiceTM
service, the usual embargo will be
overridden, accelerating the accessibility of your work. More details on NIH's Public Access Policy are available here
Karger permits authors to archive their pre-prints (i.e. pre-refereeing) or post-prints (i.e. final draft post-refereeing) on their personal or institution's servers, provided the following conditions
are met: Articles may not be used for commercial purposes, must be linked to the publisher's version, and must acknowledge the publisher's copyright. Authors selecting Karger's
feature, however, are also permitted to archive the final, published version of their article,
which includes copyediting and design improvements as well as citation links.
There are no page charges for papers of seven or fewer printed pages (including tables, illustrations and references). A charge of CHF 650.00 will be levied for each page in excess of the allotted
seven printed pages. The allotted size of a paper is equal to approximately 21 typescript pages (including tables, illustrations and references).
Unless indicated otherwise, proofs are sent to the first-named author and should be returned with the least possible delay. Alterations other than the correction of printer's errors are charged to
the author. No page proofs are supplied to the author.
Order forms and a price list are sent with the proofs. Orders submitted after this issue is printed are subject to considerably higher prices.