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Pediatric Fitness

Secular Trends and Geographic Variability

Editor(s): Tomkinson G.R. (Adelaide, S.A.) 
Olds T.S. (Adelaide, S.A.) 
Cover

Physical Fitness of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Status and Secular Change

Malina R.

Author affiliations

Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Tex., USA

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Tomkinson GR, Olds TS (eds): Pediatric Fitness. Secular Trends and Geographic Variability. Med Sport Sci. Basel, Karger, 2007, vol 50, pp 67-90

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: March 26, 2007
Cover Date: 2007

Number of Print Pages: 24
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-8177-6 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-318-01396-2 (Online)

Abstract

The physical fitness of school-age children in the United States is considered from two perspectives - status and secular change. This chapter principally examines health-related fitness, including the BMI, though performance-related fitness is briefly considered. Concepts of reference data and standards and factors that may influence secular change are initially discussed. National data on the physical fitness status of school children in the continental United States are limited to the 1980s. Ethnic variation in physical fitness is not considered except for the prevalence of overweight and obesity. More recent physical fitness data, including examination of ethnic variation, are based on several statewide and more local surveys. Although results vary by test, the majority of American school children meet or exceed criterion-referenced standards, although sex differences are not consistent. Poor morphological fitness manifest in obesity is an exception. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since the early 1980s. Secular data for specific fitness items are less extensive. Regression analyses suggest a recent decline in maximal aerobic power in girls, but fairly stable levels between the 1930s and today in boys. However, the highest values for boys occur in the 1960s and 1970s and more recent values are somewhat lower. The general trend may be consistent with the decline since the 1980s in aerobic performance assessed with the 20 m shuttle run. These trends highlight the need for updated national physical fitness data for American youth.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: March 26, 2007
Cover Date: 2007

Number of Print Pages: 24
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-8177-6 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-318-01396-2 (Online)


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Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.